1791 In Paris, the Salon exhibits works by members of the French Acadmie Royale. Although originally open to all artists, the advent of a jury to organize the exhibition led to a process of selection. The Salon's jury became a stamp of approval for a narrow circle of officially approved artists. After a change in 1864, only previous winners of medals in the Salon could sit on the jury. This led to conservatism and prejudice against the Impressionist movement.
1830 Camille Pissarro is born in St. Thomas, West Indies.
1832 Edouard Manet is born in Paris.
1834 Edgar Degas is born to a rich banker and Creole mother.
1839 Paul Cezanne is born in Aix-en-Provence and Alfred Sisley is born in Paris.
1840 Claude Monet is born in Paris.
1841 Berthe Morisot is born, Pierre-Auguste Renoir is born in Limoges and Armand Guillaumin is born in Paris.
1848 Paul Gauguin is born in Paris.
1850 A Bazille exhibition is presented in New York.
1853 Vincent van Gogh is born in a small village near Antwerp.
1858 Pissarro attends the Academie Suisse and meets Monet; in Le Havre Monet meets Eugene Boudin, who encourages him in his painting.
1862 Manet comes into an inheritance; he paints La Musique aux Tuileries and meets Degas, who is beginning to paint race scenes at Longchamp. In Paris Cezanne fails the Ecole des Beaux-Arts entrance exam. Monet is working in Le Havre.
1863 Manet exhibits at Martinet's gallery in Paris. Cezanne studies at the Academie Suisse in Paris; Monet works in the forest of Fontainebleau, and Morisot works at Pontoise. On Jan.15 the Salon des Refuses opens, a special exhibition of works refused by the Salon of 1863. It contains works by Manet, Cezanne, Pissarro, Guillaumin, and James A. M. Whistler.
1865 Manet's second exhibition at Martinet's is well received, but Olympia at the Salon arouses a storm. Pissarro, Renoir and Morisot are well received at the Salon. Monet shares a studio with Bazille.
1869 CafeGuerbois becomes the favorite center of the Impressionists. Monet becomes a regular at the cafe. Pissarro works at Bougival with Renoir, who has one work accepted by the Salon. Bazille sketchesManet, his friend and colleague.
1870 Manet and Millet are listed as alternatives to the jury at the Salon. Bazille is killed in action at the Franco-Prussian war, at age 29.
1871 Courbet becomes the president of the Art Commission of the Commune in Paris. His leadership included participation in the French Academy in Rome and the Ecole des Beaux-
Arts.
1873 Manet is well received at the Salon, and he meets Stephane Mallarme, a passionate literary fan of Impressionism. One of Degas' pastels are bought by the American Mrs. Havemeyer. Pissarro's pictures fetch fairly high prices at auction. Monet, now working in Argenteuil, takes up the plan first suggested in 1867 for a group Impressionist exhibition. Renoir enters art dealer Paul Durand-Ruel's cadre of Impressionist painters and has a considerable success at the Exposition des Refuses. Courbet is in prison for allowing the destruction of the column to Napoleon in Place Vendome.
1874 The first Impressionist exhibition is held in Paris. Durand-Ruel stages an Impressionist exhibition in his London gallery. Manet starts to benefit from his friendship with Mallarme, who protests the Salon's rejection of Manet's paintings. Refusing to participate in the Impressionist exhibition, Manet works at Argenteuil with Monet; Renoir soon joins them. Pissarro insists on Cezanne's participation and, though he sells one of the works he shows, Cezanne arouses derision with his Modern Olympia. Morisot, who exhibits nine works, spends part of the year with the Manet family and marries Eugene, Edouard Manet's brother.
1876 The second Impressionist exhibition is held in Paris, with 20 participants. Degas exhibits 24 works. He also loses most of his personal fortune by bailing his brother out of financial difficulties. Renoir's fortune looks good as a result of meeting George Charpentier, a patron of art and literature. Mallarme publishes a flattering article about Manet.
1877 The third Impressionist exhibition in Paris has 18 participants. Degas invites the American Mary Cassatt to join the group. Pissarro and Cezanne leave L'Union, a group started by Pissarro and Alfred Meyer. Monet, still in dire straits financially, exhibits 30 paintings, Renoir 17 and Morisot 19. Georges Riviere edits L'Impressionniste, a periodical defending Impressionism, during the run of the exhibition. Courbet dies in Switzerland.
1879 The fourth Impressionist exhibition in Paris has 15 participants. Manet exhibits two works at the official Salon; all of Cezanne's entries are rejected. Pissarro invites Gauguin to submit to the group exhibition, and he shows one sculpture and seven paintings.
1880 Fifth Impressionist exhibition in Paris, which includes 18 participants. Manet's Execution of the Emperor Maximilian is exhibited successfully in the U.S. and he has a one-man exhibition of pastels at La Vie Moderne in Paris; his health deteriorates.
1881 Sixth exhibition in Paris; 13 participants. Manet, now seriously ill, is awarded the Legion of Honour. Pissarro is working in Pontoise with Gauguin and Cezanne, who at the end of the year returns to Aix.
1882 Seventh exhibition in Paris; nine participants. Manet shows Le Bar aux Folies-Bergere at the Salon with little success. A retrospective exhibit of Courbet's work is held at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts.
1883 Manet dies on April 30. Durand-Ruel arranges a series of one-man exhibitions in his new gallery: Monet in March, Renoir in April, Pissarro in May, Sisley in June. Durand-Ruel organizes an exhibition by the Society of Impressionists in London. Included are works by Boudin, Cassatt, Degas, Manet, Morisot, Pissarro, and Sisley.
1886 Final Impressionist exhibition in Paris; 17 participants. Durand-Ruel hasa successful American exhibition of Impressionist painters.
1889 The Eiffel Tower was constructed in time for the Universal Exhibition. George Eastman invents the Kodak camera.
1890 Vincent van Gogh dies at Auvers-sur-Oise.
1895 Berthe Morisot dies.
1899 Alfred Sisley dies.
1903 Paul Gauguin dies at Atuana, Marquesas Islands.
1906 Paul Cezanne dies.
1917 Edgar Degas dies.
1919 Pierre-Auguste Renoir dies.
1926 Claude Monet dies at Giverny. Mary Cassatt dies.
1927 Armand Guillaumin dies.