Comparisons between Naturalist and Impressionist - 2
  Johann Barthold Jongkind
Painter View of Paris from the Seine, 1891

Edouard Manet
The Outlet of Boulogne Harbor, 1864

  Jongkind painted seascapes and ports.
This painting is an example of the evolving method
of painting using the "lost and found" technique.
This technique used overlapping colors to create transparency. Both Jongkind and Manet painted in the open air; however, Jongkind shows the transition of traditional painting techniques of the Academy to Impressionism.
Manet painted his realist scenes in a modern style. He developed a slurred, "wet-in-wet" technique of mixing colors directly on the canvas. He also focused on the light colors in the sky and subdued the middle colors of the boats. In the 1860's, he used diluted subdued colors for his underpainting. Manet always wanted to have his painting look like they were painted on a single sitting. Manet combined past and present techniques in his work.
Gustave Courbet
A Painter's Studio; A Real Allegory, 1855


Courbet painted both in his studio and in the open air. He experimented with many ideas that were contrary to the Academy's principles. Courbet's paintings captured a glimpse of many types of social classes. Courbet was known as a Realist. In 1855, the Academy did not accept his paintings for the annual show. As a result, he built a pavilion and called it the Pavilion of Realism. He even painted himself in working clothes to shock people into viewing common people in a different way.