Louis XVIII
Louis XVIII was born in 1755 and died in 1824. He was king of France from 1814 to 1824. He was the brother of King Louis XVI. He was recognized as King by the émigrés after the death of Louis XVII. With the assistance of Charles de Talleyrand, he was restored to the French throne in 1814. He adopted a conciliatory policy towards the former revolutionists and granted a constitutional charter. Louis XVIII as Monarch was very undemocratic. He acted over a constitutional charter, that included a parliament, that aimed to prevent a return to absolute Monarchy. The upper Chamber was nominated entirely by the King. Electoral laws were revised to increase the influence of the wealthy classes,and civil liberties were curbed. This trend continued and was intensified during the reign of his brother Charles X. Although Louis XVIII achieved some positive things in his reign, he was ultimately influenced by the powerful Ultras, they were extreme royalists. The Ultras persecuted Bonapartists, executing many in a "White Terror", against Louis's wishes. The Bonapartists retaliated with the murder of the Charles Ferdinand Duke of Berri in 1820, a son of the Count d' Artois who was next in line to the throne. The Ultras used this to their advantage as an excuse to stomp out Bonapartism and Liberalism. Louis, then old and suffering from gout, allowed the Ultraroyalists to take control.