Social Class Chronology

1800s Railroad companies go public, investors go crazy; many companies later fail.
1801 Paris population about 400,000.
1804 Invention of steam locomotive.
1806 Revoluntionary calendar abandoned (30-day months of three ten-day weeks, the last day being Sunday).
1810 Column Vendome by Gondoin and Lepere completed.
1815 Madame Tussaud's wax works opens.
1824 Ministry of Public Education created.
1830s Silk weavers fire employees and use family labor instead.
1830 Revolution results in expanded middle class voting system.
1831 Paris population is 861,400.
Huge labor strikes occur in silk industry.
1834 Labor strikers seek minimum wage for all workers.
1836 Arc de Triomphe de l'Etoile erected.
1839 Photography invented by Fox Talbott and Dagguerre.
1840s Telegraph allows stock market prices, quotes, and incoming orders to be communicated quickly between cities; earliest "electronic" trading.
1846 Major recession disables economy.
1947 Recession ends.
1848 Upsurge of professional and trade organization founding and membership among shopkeepers, master artisans, and petit bourgeois.
February: Police action and street uprising ousts monarchy; universal male suffrage established.

June: Uprising of Parisian workers suppressed by army led by Cavaignac.
1849 France invades Algeria, acquires new colonial lands.
1850s Stock exchanges briskly traded shares in canal and railway companies; firms rarely disclosed profitmaking strategies to investors.
1852 Bois de Boulogne annexed to city of Paris.
Vast Paris urban redevelopment begins, clearing of areas on Ile de la Cite and near Louvre; construction begins to join Louvre to Tuileries Gardens.

Railway to Strasbourg opens.

New bridges built across River Seine.
1853 Baron George Haussmann is made Prefect of the Seine River and begins reconstruction of Paris.
Boulevard de Strasbourge and rue Soufflot opened.

Emperor Louis Napoleon (Napoleon III) marries Eugenie de Montijo of Spain; the Empress become the leader of fashion and society.

rue de Rivoli begun.
1854 Crimean War begins as France sides with Great Britain and Turkey against Russia.
1855 World's Fair on Champs-Elysees includes Palais de l'Industrie.
Railway to Lyon and Mediterranean opens.

Emperor Louis Napoleon (Napoleon III) and Empress Eugenie exchange cross-Channel visits with Queen Victoria and Prince Albert of Great Britain.

March: Crimean War ends in Paris treaty.

June: Prince Imperial baptized.
1856 avenue de l'Imperatrice opens.
Flaubert writes Madame Bovary.
1857 Transatlantic telegraph cable laid.
Completion of Bois de Boulogne and Longchamp racetrack.

Arc de Triomphe avenues open.

rue de Rivoli opens.

Army completes conquest of Kabyles of Algeria.

Emperor Louis Napoleon (Napoleon III) and Empress Eugenie visits with Queen Victoria and Prince Albert of Great Britain again.
1858 boulevard de Sebatopol opens.
Anglo-French expeditionary forces invade China.

Suez Canal company formed by de Lesseps.
1859 boulevard Saint-Michel completed.
Baron George Haussmann's powers increased by decree.

June: Empress Eugenie creates fashion with "Magenta red."
1860 Bois de Vincennes annexed to Paris.
Montmartre annexed to Paris.
1861 adjacent suburbs annexed to Paris.
boulevard Malesherbes opens.

Rebuilt Parc Monceau opens.

Brothers Edmund Louis Antoine Hout de Goncourt and Jules Alfred Hout de Goncourt publish "Soeur Philomene."
1862 New Opera construction begins.
French expeditionary forces battle Juarez in Mexico.

Treaty of Saigon confirms French role in Annam.

Victor Hugo publishes "Les Miserables."
1863 Provisional French government established in Mexico.
New Deauville built on Channel coast; railway opens.

Cambodia made French protectorate.

Last of eight new bridges across the River Seine completed.

New quais (piers) along River Seine opened.
1864 Regular steamship service starts between France and New York.
New Deauville racetrack opens.

Workers win right to strike.
1865 Japan trade with west resumes.
Communist International established in Paris.

Goncourt brothers publish novel "Germinie Lacerteux" and play "Henriette Marechal."
1866 boulevard Saint-Germain opens.
1867 Singing of Le Marseillaise forbidden due to its evocation of revolution.
English newspapers held from readers at post offices due to content deemed hostile to French government.

Exposition Universelle (World's Fair) in Paris draws 11 million visitors.

Liberalization of theatre legislation results in rapid expansion of cafes-concerts and vaudeville.

Stock ticker is introduced at stock exchanges.
1868 Gare Saint-Lazare enlarged and adjacent streets redone.
New legislation improves freedom of press and right of pubic assembly.
1869 Suez Canal opens.
Folies Bergere opens.

George Haussmann falls out of political favor.

Suez Canal opens.
1870 Siege of Paris by Germany.
Baron George Haussmann dismissed.

Victor Hugo returns from exile.
1873 Old Opera destroyed by fire.
Construction of Sacre Cour begins.

French financial crisis occurs and depression begins.
1874 Place du Vendome column destroyed during Commune is reerected.
1875 New Opera opens.
Sacre-Cour construction begins.
1877 avenue de l'Opera opens.
Paris population exceeds 2 million.

Goncourt brothers publish "La Fille Elisa."

Emile Zola publishes "L'Assommoir."

Electric lamp invented.
1878 May 1: Exposition universelle (World's Fair).
First public playing of "La Marseillaise" since Commune.

Stock exchange traders begin to use telephones to communicate between cities.
1879 Emile Zola publishes "Nana."
Goncourt brothers publish "Les Freres Zemganno."
1880 Halftone photograph invented.
Jesuits expelled from France; exclusively secular instruction mandated for public schools.

July 14: First Bastille Day celebrations held.
1881 Electric price board is introduced at stock exchanges.
1882 France establishes compulsory primary education.
Founding of French Socialist Party.
1883 Orient Express starts run fro Paris to Instanbul, Turkey.
1884 Faberge makes first jewelled eggs for Tzar of Russia.
Trade unions legalized in France.
1886 Statue of Liberty dedicated in New York.
1887 Police reported over 150 revolutionary or anarchist groups in Paris; at least 15 had over 500 members and many had at least 1000 sympathizers.
1889 Kodak camera introduced.
Eiffel Tower completed, world's tallest structure.

Exposition universelle (World's Fair).

Le Moulin Rouge opens.
1890 France leads world in production of motor cars.
Maxim's reastaurant opens.
1895 Roentgen discovers x-rays.
1898 Paris Metro construction begins and first lines opened.
1900 Paris Metro extends to Montmartre.
Exposition Universelle (World's Fair).


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