Mortuary Temple of Queen Hatshepsut. Detail: Queen Hatshepsut.
EGYPTIAN XVIII DYNASTY Anonymous (aka Eighteenth Dynasty Anonymous; 18th Dynasty
15th c BCE Egyptian Egyptian New Kingdom Sculpture
(c.1570 BCE - 1293 BCE)
c. 1450 BCE
15th c BCE
Egyptian New Kingdom
Deir el-Bahari. Egypt.
Here is a portrait of Queen Hatshepsut. You have undoubtedly noticed that she has a beard. Hatshepsut was an able and powerful woman, and although she reigned in her own right she had to put on the beard, one of the symbols of royal power, when she sat in state. Many of the representations of her display this added feature. However, the art produced during her reign shows a new grace and delicacy that was to be characteristic of much of the art of the New Kingdom.
The Middle Kingdom had been brought to a close by the successful invasion of the Hyksos, a group from the uplands of Mesopotamia, and it was almost two hundred years before they were finally driven out and the New Kingdom established. The military build-up which made it possible for the Egyptians to throw out the Hyksos also enabled them to embark upon a series of conquests. As a result, Egyptian power was expanded southward into Nubia and eastward into Syria during the New Kingdom.
Open the map that is shown as image number 35. It displays the main centers of Egypt with Nubia indicated in the south, at the bottom of the map. During the Old Kingdom the capital had been at Memphis, which is located in the northern part of Egypt. Saqqara and Gizeh, which we studied, are both located nearby. During the Middle Kingdom the capital was shifted south to Thebes, where it remained throughout the New Kingdom. Due to the riches that came to Egypt as a result of the conquests during this period, which is also known as the Empire, Thebes became a rich and luxurious city, and great temples were erected along the banks of the Nile south of the city at Karnak, Edfu, Luxor, and Abu Simbel. When the revolutionary pharaoh Akhnaton tried to establish his new ideas, he moved the capital northward again, this time to Tel-el-Amarna. Your understanding of Egyptian geography will perhaps be facilitated if you will locate these sites along with others indicated in your Study Guide on the map provided in the guide.
EGYPTIAN XVIII DYNASTY Anonymous | Mortuary Temple of Queen Hatshepsut. Detail: Queen Hatshepsut. | c. 1450 BCE | Egyptian | Egyptian New Kingdom