Attalid monument.Dying Gaul (Capitoline Gaul).
3rd c BCE Greek Pergamon School Sculpture
(active c. 250 BCE - c. 200 BCE)
c. 241 BCE -197 BCE
3rd c BCE
Pergamon (Pergamum). Asia Minor. Turkey.
Rome. Museo dei Conservatori
In this lesson we will discuss art from a period which is often designated as the Dark Ages, a period which extends from the fall of Rome in 410 and the Carolingian revival in the late 8th century. This was a period of great upheaval as the Germanic peoples migrated East from Scandinavia to the Black Sea where they contacted the nomads of the steppes of Central Asia. The Germanic peoples were moved West as the Huns conquered more territory, forcing them into the Roman Empire, which gradually caused its disintegration. The art style they brought to the Empire was a combination of the influences of the nomadic Animal Style and the art of the Celtic peoples. This style gradually developed into the medieval Romanesque and Gothic art styles as the remnants of the Classical Greco-Roman tradition infiltrated their culture, forming a new synthesis. In this lesson we will examine the various non-Classical sources that formed the basis for this synthesis.
We will begin the lesson with a figure from the Hellenistic monument erected by Attalus I of Pergamon commemorating his victory over the Gauls. The various groups that lived in France and Northern Europe were discussed briefly during our study of the great Mediterranean civilizations, but in this lesson we will examine these groups and the art that they produced in detail. Much of this art was metalwork, for these nomadic peoples concentrated their artistic talents on works that they could easily take with them. This dying warrior wears a type of necklace known as a twisted torque, a favorite form of these northern peoples.
EPIGONOS ?| Dying Gaul [Roman copy] | Hellenistic | Greek