Inca Yupanqui Pachakuti (1438-1471).
PERUVIAN COLONIAL Anonymous
15th c Peruvian Colonial/Inca Painting
(active c. 1500 - c 1800)
Cuzco. Museo Arqueologico Universario.
The Inca, who were the last of the great Pre-Columbian civilizations, described their origins in terms of the sacred landscape. As we noted earlier, their empire spread some 2500 miles from the southern border of Columbia down the coast of Peru and Bolivia into Chile. Their creation legend as recorded by Juan de Betanzos relate that in the beginning a lord named VIRACOCHA emerged from a lake in the land where today is a town called Tiahuanaco. He created the earth and the sky and later created the sun and then formed people who would emerge from mountains, caves and rivers in the lands that were assigned from them. The Inca believed that their ancestors had emerged from a cave called Pacarictambo, which means "house of origin," carrying maize, golden dishes and weapons, dressed in rich wools with gold ornaments. One of them, Manco Capac and his sisters arrived at the site where the city of Cuzco was located. Seeing them so richly dressed, the natives realized that they were the children of the sun and welcomed them as their rulers.
Juan de Betanzos' transcription of the lives of the Inca kings was taken from informants who had memorized their deeds. The rulers as well as the people are known as Incas. The early Incas essentially stayed around Cuzco fighting local wars. However, when a rival group known as the Chanca approached Cuzco in one of these wars, the Inca fled along with the son he had named as his heir. A younger son, Yupanque, refused to surrender. He went into the wilderness where he prayed to Viracocha, the creator of all things for help against the overwhelming forces he would face he next day. The god promised that he would not be defeated. During the battle the next day twenty unknown legions appeared and insured Yupanque's victory. In honor of his victory, his father decided that he, rather than his brother, should become Inca. Yupanque changed his name to PACHACUTI, "shaper of the earth," when he assumed office, and he embarked upon a series of campaigns which vastly enlarged the land controlled by the Inca. He is responsible for instituting a series of administrative reforms that made the vast territory into a cohesive and well run empire.
Peruvian Colonial | Inca Yupanqui Pachakuti (1438-1471). | 1438-1471 | Peruvian | Colonial/Inca