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STUDY GUIDE: ANCIENT EMPIRES: MESOPOTAMIA, EGYPT & THE INDUS VALLEY

This module will introduce you to three ancient empires through a series of images with linked text. You will be able to learn the information more effectively if you print out the section below and fill it in as you go through the text. There is a short self quiz at the end and a series of discussion questions which your instructor may ask you in class. If you are taking the course wholly on line, your instructor may ask you to answer in a short written essay.

1. Using the maps in the lesson, locate the following sites or areas on the map of the Near East Guide: Egypt, Anatolia, Sumer, Akkad, Assyria, the Mediterranean Sea , and the Nile, the Tigris and the Euphrates rivers.



2. To help you sort out the complicated chronology of the Ancient Near East write down the dates for the following periods. You may wish to write down the specific dates of each group, followed by the millennium in which they flourished. Testing in the course will be based upon the millennium.

Sumerians:
Neo-Sumerians:

Akkadians:

Babylonians:
Neo-Babylonians:

Hittites:

Assyrians:

3. Identify or define the following:

city-state


cuneiform


cylinder seal


Ishtar


Naram-Sin


Nebuchadnezzar


Sargon


true arch


votive figures


ziggurat


3. Name six fundamental arts of high civilizations that are believed to have originated in Ancient Mesopotamia around 3500 BCE.

a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

f.

Write down the approximate date that these so-called "arts of civilization" appeared in the following areas:

Egypt:

Crete and the Indus Valley:

China:

Mexico and Peru:


4. List two important advantages to society of documents in written form over oral transmission.

a.

b.


5. Give the meanings of the following representations depicted in ancient Mesopotamian art.

Sacred Marriage:

bull and bull-men:

dragon:

serpent:

lion:

Tree of Life:

6. Why, according to Sumerian mythology, did the gods create human beings?


Why did they not want them to eat of the Tree of Life?


8. Write down five stylistic characteristics of Sumerian sculpture as seen in the statuettes of worshippers shown in #10 (mes01030.cmp):

a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

9. Who was Gilgamesh and what is his struggle believed to symbolize?



10. What was the function of a ziggarut in Mesopotamian religious life?



11. What is represented on the Stele of Naram-Sin?


List three of its stylistic characteristics:

a.

b.

c.

12. List three stylistic characteristics that figures of Gudea of Lagash share with earlier Sumerian art:

a.

b.

c.

13. What was the Code of Hammurabi?



14. Where and when did the Hittite Empire arise?

What type of language did the Hittites speak?

What type of building material did they use?

15. What is the importance of the large lions that guarded the gate of the Hittite stronghold at Hattusus?



16. What did the representation of Ashurnasirpal II on #22 (mes01069) share with the Sumerians?

What did it share with the Akkadians?

17. What evidence do we have for ancient trade between Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley?



18. List three architectural features of the citadel of Sargon II at Khorsabad :

a.

b.

c.


19. What was the function of an Assyrian lamassu?

What creatures did they combine and what did each symbolize?



20. What do the subjects portrayed on Assyrian reliefs tell us about the activities of the Assyrian king?



21. List two new stylistic features found in the relief of the Jewish family on the way to Babylon (#9 mes01080).

a.

b.


22. Where was the Ishtar Gate originally erected?


How was it decorated?


What did the decorations signify?

23. Under what names and with what rites was the Great Goddess worshipped by the Babylonians?


24. EGYPTIAN CHRONOLOGY:

Predynastic Period: ___________BCE to ________________ BCE

Early Dynastic Period: ___________BCE to ________________ BCE

Old Kingdom: ___________BCE to ________________ BCE

Middle Kingdom: ___________BCE to ________________ BCE

New Kingdom: ___________BCE to ________________ BCE

25. Identify or define the following:

Akhnaton


ankh


Anubis


Book of the Dead


faience


Hathor


Hatshepsut


hieroglyphic


Horus


Isis


Kush


Nefertiti


obelisk


Osiris


papyrus


Ra or Re


Rameses


26. Briefly describe the role played by the Nile in the development of Egyptian civilization:



27. How did the belief in the life of the "ka" and its needs influence Egyptian art?



28. What was the "ba" and how was it represented?



29. The Palette of Narmer #44 (egy01010), which was created about 3000 BCE is extremely important in Egyptian history and art for several reasons. Politically it documents:



Culturally it records an important fact about religion:




Artistically, it embodies conventions that will dominate Egyptian official art to the end of the New Kingdom, namely:




30. List three conventions that Egyptian artists used in depicting figures in two dimensions?

a.

b.

c.

31. List three stylistic characteristics used in Egyptian sculpture:

a.

b.

c.

32. Describe the post and lintel construction system & draw a sketch in the margin.




33. Name three basic parts of a typical Egyptian temple and draw a sketch in the margin.

a.

b.

c.

34. What was the purpose of the pyramids at Gizeh?



35. What is the importance of the Rosetta stone?




36. The pyramid tombs so popular in the Old Kingdom were replaced by _______________ tombs and mortuary temples in the Middle Kingdom.

Name the woman who built a magnificent one during the New Kingdom at Deir el-Bahari:


37. In what ways did the decorations of New Kingdom tombs differ from those of the Old Kingdom?


What features did they share?


38. Why do you think the artist who painted the landscape shown on #56 (egy02068) placed the trees the way he did?




39. List six products the Egyptians wanted in trade from Punt?


With what area has Punt been identified?


40. What was the relationship between Amen-Ra and Aton?


41. What was the major effect of the new Amarna style on figural representation?



42. Although Rameses II lived after Akhenaton, the statues that were carved for the facade of his tomb #63 (egy02084) ignore many of the stylistic features developed by the Amarna artists. Compare the figures of Rameses with the relief of Akhenaton and his family #61 (egy02023):




43. During what period was Egypt controlled by a dynasty from Nubia?


44. Add the following to the Near East at the end of the Study Guide: Indus River, Mohenjo-Daro, Harappa and Susa.


45. Identify or define the following terms:


Indo-European language group


steatite seal


"Great Bath"



46. What evidence do we have for trade relations between the Indus Valley and Mesopotamia?


47. List two features that demonstrate the sophisticated city planning of Mohenjo-Daro:

a. b.

48. List two adjectives that describe the style of the Torso of a Young Man shown on #76 (ind00023) and the Dancer shown on #77 (ind00028).

a. b.

49. The Indus Valley civilization flourished from approximately _____________ to ____________ BCE/

Briefly summarize two different explanations that have been given for its decline:

a.


b.


SELF QUIZ

Write the information requested for each image indicated, looking only at the thumbnail or enlarged image . When you have finished check your answers by consulting the appropriate "info" page. Give yourself 10% for every correct answer.

#44: COUNTRY: ______________________________________

#16: TITLE /NAME: _____________________________________

#75: CULTURE/STYLE:___________________________________

# 36: TITLE /NAME: ______________________________________

#29: CULTURE/STYLE: ___________________________________________

#70: CULTURE/STYLE: ______________________________________

#25: CULTURE/STYLE: _________________________________

#49: COUNTRY: _________________________________________

#10: CULTURE/STYLE: _________________________________

#60: COUNTRY: _________________________________


ANCIENT EMPIRES DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

Use the Ancient Empires Questions unit to answer the following:

1. Compare the Sumerian statuettes shown on # 01a ( Mes01030.cmp) with the representation of Gudea of Lagash # 01b (mes01049). In what ways are they similar? What types of artistic changes have taken place between the creation of these two works? How do these representations differ from the priest/king and male torso from the Indus Valley # 01c (ind01025.cmp) & # 01d (ind00023). Discuss the articulation of the bodies and the stylization of the features. Which is treated most naturalistically?

2. Compare the relief representations of the Akkadian ruler on #02a (mes01048) and of Narmar on #02b (egy01010) noting the conventions used to articulate the figures as well as the themes represented in each. What features would help you associate one with Mesopotamia and the other with Egypt?

3. Compare the representations of Menkure #03a (egy01087) and Akhnaton #03b (egy02023), and Rameses #03c (egy02084). What differences do you see and how might these differences reflect the religious and/or economic goals of the pharoahs?

4. What do the Ziggurat at Ur on # 04a (mes01010.cmp,) the Palace of Sargon II at Khorsabad on #04b (dia01031.cmp), the Pyramids at Ghiza on #04c (egy01079), and the city layout and Great Bath of Mohenjo-Daro on #04d (ind00029) and #04e (ind00030) seem to reflect about the major concerns of each civilization?

5. Compare the depiction of animals by the Sumerians #05a (mes01037.cmp) #05b (mes01028) #05c (mes01029), the Assyrians, #05d (mes01071), #05e (mes01074), the Egyptians #05f (egy01012), #05g (egy01020) and the Indus Valley civilization #05h (ind00003) and #05i (neo01082.cmp). How was the image of the animal used in each case? What does that tell us about the beliefs and/or habits of the cultures that created the images?

6. Discuss Egypt's relationship with Nubia, using #06a (egy00015), #06b (egy02027.cmp) and #06c (egy00010). How did the art of each country reflect that relationship?

7. Who were the Aryans and how were they related to Indo-European languages and to 20th century German politics?

ANCIENT EMPIRES:
MESOPOTAMIA, EGYPT AND THE INDUS VALLEY

1. Using the maps in the lesson, locate the following sites or areas on the map of the Near East at the end of your Study Guide: Egypt, Anatolia, Sumer, Akkad, Assyria, the Mediterranean Sea , and the Nile, the Tigris and the Euphrates rivers.

2. To help you sort out the complicated chronology of the Ancient Near East write down the dates for the following periods. You may wish to write down the specific dates of each group, followed by the millennium in which they flourished. Testing in the course will be based upon the millennium.

Sumerians:
Neo-Sumerians:

Akkadians:

Babylonians:
Neo-Babylonians:

Hittites:

Assyrians:

3. Identify or define the following:

city-state


cuneiform


cylinder seal


Ishtar


Naram-Sin


Nebuchadnezzar


Sargon


true arch


votive figures


ziggurat


3. Name six fundamental arts of high civilizations that are believed to have originated in Ancient Mesopotamia around 3500 BCE.

a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

f.

Write down the approximate date that these so-called "arts of civilization" appeared in the following areas:

Egypt:

Crete and the Indus Valley:

China:

Mexico and Peru:


4. List two important advantages to society of documents in written form over oral transmission.

a.

b.


5. Give the meanings of the following representations depicted in ancient Mesopotamian art.

Sacred Marriage:

bull and bull-men:

dragon:

serpent:

lion:

Tree of Life:

6. Why, according to Sumerian mythology, did the gods create human beings?


Why did they not want them to eat of the Tree of Life?


8. Write down five stylistic characteristics of Sumerian sculpture as seen in the statuettes of worshippers shown in #10 (mes01030.cmp):

a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

9. Who was Gilgamesh and what is his struggle believed to symbolize?



10. What was the function of a ziggarut in Mesopotamian religious life?



11. What is represented on the Stele of Naram-Sin?


List three of its stylistic characteristics:

a.

b.

c.

12. List three stylistic characteristics that figures of Gudea of Lagash share with earlier Sumerian art:

a.

b.

c.

13. What was the Code of Hammurabi?



14. Where and when did the Hittite Empire arise?

What type of language did the Hittites speak?

What type of building material did they use?

15. What is the importance of the large lions that guarded the gate of the Hittite stronghold at Hattusus?



16. What did the representation of Ashurnasirpal II on #22 (mes01069) share with the Sumerians?

What did it share with the Akkadians?

17. What evidence do we have for ancient trade between Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley?



18. List three architectural features of the citadel of Sargon II at Khorsabad :

a.

b.

c.


19. What was the function of an Assyrian lamassu?

What creatures did they combine and what did each symbolize?



20. What do the subjects portrayed on Assyrian reliefs tell us about the activities of the Assyrian king?



21. List two new stylistic features found in the relief of the Jewish family on the way to Babylon (#9 mes01080).

a.

b.


22. Where was the Ishtar Gate originally erected?


How was it decorated?


What did the decorations signify?

23. Under what names and with what rites was the Great Goddess worshipped by the Babylonians?


24. EGYPTIAN CHRONOLOGY:

Predynastic Period: ___________BCE to ________________ BCE

Early Dynastic Period: ___________BCE to ________________ BCE

Old Kingdom: ___________BCE to ________________ BCE

Middle Kingdom: ___________BCE to ________________ BCE

New Kingdom: ___________BCE to ________________ BCE

25. Identify or define the following:

Akhnaton


ankh


Anubis


Book of the Dead


faience


Hathor


Hatshepsut


hieroglyphic


Horus


Isis


Kush


Nefertiti


obelisk


Osiris


papyrus


Ra or Re


Rameses


26. Briefly describe the role played by the Nile in the development of Egyptian civilization:



27. How did the belief in the life of the "ka" and its needs influence Egyptian art?



28. What was the "ba" and how was it represented?



29. The Palette of Narmer #44 (egy01010), which was created about 3000 BCE is extremely important in Egyptian history and art for several reasons. Politically it documents:



Culturally it records an important fact about religion:




Artistically, it embodies conventions that will dominate Egyptian official art to the end of the New Kingdom, namely:




30. List three conventions that Egyptian artists used in depicting figures in two dimensions?

a.

b.

c.

31. List three stylistic characteristics used in Egyptian sculpture:

a.

b.

c.

32. Describe the post and lintel construction system & draw a sketch in the margin.




33. Name three basic parts of a typical Egyptian temple and draw a sketch in the margin.

a.

b.

c.

34. What was the purpose of the pyramids at Gizeh?



35. What is the importance of the Rosetta stone?




36. The pyramid tombs so popular in the Old Kingdom were replaced by _______________ tombs and mortuary temples in the Middle Kingdom.

Name the woman who built a magnificent one during the New Kingdom at Deir el-Bahari:


37. In what ways did the decorations of New Kingdom tombs differ from those of the Old Kingdom?


What features did they share?


38. Why do you think the artist who painted the landscape shown on #56 (egy02068) placed the trees the way he did?




39. List six products the Egyptians wanted in trade from Punt?


With what area has Punt been identified?


40. What was the relationship between Amen-Ra and Aton?


41. What was the major effect of the new Amarna style on figural representation?



42. Although Rameses II lived after Akhenaton, the statues that were carved for the facade of his tomb #63 (egy02084) ignore many of the stylistic features developed by the Amarna artists. Compare the figures of Rameses with the relief of Akhenaton and his family #61 (egy02023):




43. During what period was Egypt controlled by a dynasty from Nubia?


44. Add the following to the Near East at the end of the Study Guide: Indus River, Mohenjo-Daro, Harappa and Susa.


45. Identify or define the following terms:


Indo-European language group


steatite seal


"Great Bath"



46. What evidence do we have for trade relations between the Indus Valley and Mesopotamia?


47. List two features that demonstrate the sophisticated city planning of Mohenjo-Daro:

a. b.

48. List two adjectives that describe the style of the Torso of a Young Man shown on #76 (ind00023) and the Dancer shown on #77 (ind00028).

a. b.

49. The Indus Valley civilization flourished from approximately _____________ to ____________ BCE/

Briefly summarize two different explanations that have been given for its decline:

a.


b.


SELF QUIZ

Write the information requested for each image indicated, looking only at the thumbnail or enlarged image . When you have finished check your answers by consulting the appropriate "info" page. Give yourself 10% for every correct answer.

#44: COUNTRY: ______________________________________

#16: TITLE /NAME: _____________________________________

#75: CULTURE/STYLE:___________________________________

# 36: TITLE /NAME: ______________________________________

#29: CULTURE/STYLE: ___________________________________________

#70: CULTURE/STYLE: ______________________________________

#25: CULTURE/STYLE: _________________________________

#49: COUNTRY: _________________________________________

#10: CULTURE/STYLE: _________________________________

#60: COUNTRY: _________________________________


ANCIENT EMPIRES DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

Use the Ancient Empires Questions unit to answer the following:

1. Compare the Sumerian statuettes shown on # 01a ( Mes01030.cmp) with the representation of Gudea of Lagash # 01b (mes01049). In what ways are they similar? What types of artistic changes have taken place between the creation of these two works? How do these representations differ from the priest/king and male torso from the Indus Valley # 01c (ind01025.cmp) & # 01d (ind00023). Discuss the articulation of the bodies and the stylization of the features. Which is treated most naturalistically?

2. Compare the relief representations of the Akkadian ruler on #02a (mes01048) and of Narmar on #02b (egy01010) noting the conventions used to articulate the figures as well as the themes represented in each. What features would help you associate one with Mesopotamia and the other with Egypt?

3. Compare the representations of Menkure #03a (egy01087) and Akhnaton #03b (egy02023), and Rameses #03c (egy02084). What differences do you see and how might these differences reflect the religious and/or economic goals of the pharoahs?

4. What do the Ziggurat at Ur on # 04a (mes01010.cmp,) the Palace of Sargon II at Khorsabad on #04b (dia01031.cmp), the Pyramids at Ghiza on #04c (egy01079), and the city layout and Great Bath of Mohenjo-Daro on #04d (ind00029) and #04e (ind00030) seem to reflect about the major concerns of each civilization?

5. Compare the depiction of animals by the Sumerians #05a (mes01037.cmp) #05b (mes01028) #05c (mes01029), the Assyrians, #05d (mes01071), #05e (mes01074), the Egyptians #05f (egy01012), #05g (egy01020) and the Indus Valley civilization #05h (ind00003) and #05i (neo01082.cmp). How was the image of the animal used in each case? What does that tell us about the beliefs and/or habits of the cultures that created the images?

6. Discuss Egypt's relationship with Nubia, using #06a (egy00015), #06b (egy02027.cmp) and #06c (egy00010). How did the art of each country reflect that relationship?

7. Who were the Aryans and how were they related to Indo-European languages and to 20th century German politics?

Bookmark: https://worldimages.sjsu.edu/prt1936

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Tablet with inscriptions & geometric shape.

SUMERIAN Anonymous (3500 BCE - 2000 BCE)
30th-20th c BCE Mesopotamian Sumerian (Eary Dynastic) Document

Ur. Model of city.

SUMERIAN Anonymous (3500 BCE - 2000 BCE)
3rd millennium BCE Mesopotamian Sumerian (Eary Dynastic) Architecture

Tablet & envelope.

SUMERIAN Anonymous (3500 BCE - 2000 BCE)
Terracotta
28th-27th c BCE Mesopotamian Sumerian (Eary Dynastic) Document

Pazuzu. Demon king of evil wind.

SUMERIAN Anonymous (3500 BCE - 2000 BCE)
29th-26th c BCE Mesopotamian Sumerian (Eary Dynastic) Sculpture

King & Queen Giving Offerings.

SUMERIAN Anonymous (3500 BCE - 2000 BCE)
3rd millennium BCE Mesopotamian Sumerian (Eary Dynastic) Sculpture

Statuettes of Worshippers.

SUMERIAN Anonymous (3500 BCE - 2000 BCE)
alabaster
3rd millennium BCE Mesopotamian Sumerian (Eary Dynastic) Sculpture

Ram in a Thicket.

SUMERIAN Anonymous (3500 BCE - 2000 BCE)
27th-25th c BCE Mesopotamian Sumerian (Eary Dynastic) Sculpture

Kneeling man-bull.

SUMERIAN Anonymous (3500 BCE - 2000 BCE)
Silver
4th millennium BCE Mesopotamian Sumerian (Eary Dynastic) Metalwork


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