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STUDY GUIUDE: THE HERO MEETS THE GODDESS: ART OF THE ANCIENT MEDITERRANEAN

Here is the Study Guide for the Ancient Mediterranean. You will be able to learn the information more effectively if you print out the section below and fill it in as you go through the text. There is a short self quiz at the end and a series of discussion questions which your instructor may ask you in class. If you are taking the course wholly on line, your instructor may ask you to answer in a short written essay.

1. Print out the outline map shown in the Question section. Using online maps try locate the following Aegean Sea, Cyclades, Crete, Malta, Mycenae, Troy, Athens, Delphi, Asia Minor and Ionia. 2. Identify or define the following terms: Amazons amphora Apollo Artemis centaur citadel contrapposto corbeled arch and vault Cylopean walls Demeter Dionysus Gaea Golden Mean gorgon Hera Herakles (Hercules) Hermes Illiad kore (pl. korai) kouros (pl. kourai) Maenad (bacchante) Medusa Minos Minotaur omphalos Oracle of Delphi Penthesilea Persephone Perseus repoussé Trojan Horse Zeus 3. Identify and indicate the primary dates for each culture: Cycladic Helladic Minoan 4. Describe the shape of the Neolithic temples of Malta and/or draw one of them. What does Rachel-Levy believe they signify? 5. List two stylistic characteristics of the Bronze Age statuettes from the Cycladic Islands: a. b. 6. List three characteristics of Minoan sculpture seen in the Snake Goddesses #08 (aeg01027.cmp). a. b. c. 7. List three attributes of the Great Goddess of Crete that identify her with the forces of nature. a. b. c. 8. What is the bull thought to have symbolized in Minoan religious practices? What, according to the anthropologist Frazier, was the relationship between the bull and the young kings of Crete? 9. List two characteristics of Minoan painting: a. b. 10. What is particularly significant about the depiction of the human faces on the Harvester's Vase #13 (aeg01032 )? 11. In what way were the Mycenaeans and the ancient Greeks related to the Aryans of the Indus Valley? 12. Who excavated Troy? What ancient literary source did he use as a guide? 13. What is the name of the cultural group who built great fortresses at Tiryns and Mycenae? 14. What construction techniques were used to build the Lion Gate at Mycenae #19 (gre02036.cmp)? What is the relief of the column between lions on thought to symbolize? 15. List two favorite subjects for sculpture during the Greek Geometric Period: a. b. 16. What is a dipylon vase? 17. List three characteristics typical of vase decoration of the Geometric Period: a. b. c. 18. Write down the dates for the following Greek stylistic periods: Geometric: ___________to_________ Orientalizing: ___________to_________ Archaic: ___________to_________ Classical: ___________to_________ 19. The 7th and early 6th centuries have been called the Greek Orientalizing Period because of the influence from the East. Name two motifs that came into Greece during that time. a. b. 20. List three stylistic characteristics of Greek archaic reliefs: a. b. c. 21. Describe radio-carbon dating and why it is useful to archaeologists. 22. What is "iconography"? 23. The Greeks were made up principally of a mixture of the Dorian and Ionian peoples. Briefly list the qualities that characterize each. and note how they are exemplified in the Lady of Auxerre and the Hera of Samos. Dorians: Ionians: 24. How were Demeter and Persephone connected with Greek ideas of death and rebirth? 25. In what way does Greek mythology reflect the Dorian conquest of the Aegean world? In what way did Zeus's amorous adventures symbolize the conquest of the patriarchal Greeks over the earlier goddess-based cultures? How was the meaning of the sphinx changed by the Greeks? How does the story of Theseus and Ariadne reflect the new patriarchal beliefs ? 26. Describe the Black Figured technique used by the artist who painted the cup with Herakles and an Amazon # 47 (gre04054) and Herakles Wrestling a Lion # 48 ( gre04051). What convention was used in vase painting for differentiating the skins of men and women? 27. Describe the Red Figured technique used in the image of Herakles and Cerebrus on #49 (gre00007). 28. Who was Athena, and what the was the significance of her extraordinary birth? 29. Who was Dionysus and what was his gift to the Greeks? 30. Describe the White Ground technique of vase painting. 31. To what do "Pie crust" and "ravioli" styles refer? 32. How do the two kore figures on #57 (gre01151.cmp) reflect the differences between the Doric and Ionic approaches to form? 33. What is meant by "pie crust" and "ravioli style" hair, other than a bad hair day? 34. List three stylistic characteristics of the Greek Archaic Kouros shown on #58 (gre01149.cmp). a. b. c. 35. Describe the major change in the representation of the body has been made in the figure of the Kritios Boy shown on # 60 (gre01140.cmp) and give its name. 36. List three stylistic characteristics of the Greek Archaic style seen in the head on the left of #61 (gre00023.cmp). a. b. c. List three classical features by contrast that are represented in the head on the right. a. b. c. 37. What is the subject portrayed in the pediments from the Temple of Aphaia at Aegina? List four stylistic characteristics of the Archaic style that are apparent in the figures shown on #62, (gre02049.cmp), #63 (gre02047), and #64 (gre02051) and #66 (gre02050). a. b. c. d. 38. When was the first Olympiad? What was its purpose? List four of the games that were originally played: a. b. . c. d. 5. What did the Greeks mean by "due measure:" 39. What are the subjects portrayed in the pediments from the Temple of Zeus at Olympia? List four stylistic characteristics of the Early Classical style that are apparent in the figures from the temple that are shown on #72 (gre00015), #73 (gre00016), #74 (gre00017), and #75 (gre02038). a. b. c. d. SELF QUIZ Write the information requested for each image looking only at the thumbnail or enlarged image . When you have finished check your answers by consulting the appropriate "info" page. Give yourself 10% for every correct answer. # 06: CULTURE/STYLE:___________________________________ #25: TITLE /NAME & STYLE: _____________________________________ #17: CULTURE/STYLE:___________________________________ #19: TYPE OF STRUCTURE & CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUE: ________________________________________________________ #49: COUNTRY & TECHNIQUE: _________________________________________ #05: PERIOD/STYLE: ___________________________________________ #22: PERIOD/STYLE: ______________________________________ #08: CULTURE/STYLE: _________________________________ #74: TITLE/NAME: _________________________________ #60: COUNTRY & STYLE : _________________________________ DISCUSSION QUESTIONS Use the Hero and Goddess Questions program to answer the following: 1. Compare the Minoan frescos #01a (gr200025)and #01b (aeg00009) with the Egyptian examples #01c (egy00015) and #01d (egy02068). What differences do you see in the artists' approaches to composition and form, particularly in the depiction of motion and vitality? Do you think that the different approaches to art are in any way related to the societies themselves? 2. Discuss the development of Greek sculpture from the Geometric through the Early Classic Period using #02a (gre01002), #02b (gre01149.cmp), #02c (gre01146.cmp), #02d (gre1140.cmp). Describe the increasingly naturalistic treatment of the body. What unique pose was developed by the Greeks? 3. Compare the Greek mask of Medusa with the Balinese mask of Rangda #03a (gre00001.cmp) and the Hindu "Face of Glory" on # 03b (sea02074.cmp) How do they formally resemble each other and what did they each mean? 4. Discuss the ways in which Greek myths could be considered to demonstrate the conquest of the goddess-worshipping peoples. Select 6 images to illustrate your discussion from #04a-u: (mes00005, aeg01027.cmp, mes02022, gre01012, gre03003, gre04047, gre04065, gre03008, gre03004, gre03005, gre04045.cmp, aeg01054, god01035, god01036, gre04085, gre04049, gre04051, gre02031, gre04046, gre04074, gre04058).

Bookmark: https://worldimages.sjsu.edu/prt1949

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Map of the Aegean.

CARTOGRAPHER Anonymous
Aegean Cartographic Maps & Diagrams

Tarxian temple. Plan.

MALTESE NEOLITHIC Anonymous
31st-26th c BCE European Neolithic Architecture

Cycladic idol.

CYCLADIC (EARLY) Anonymous
3rd millennium BCE Aegean Cycladic Sculpture

Lyre Player.

CYCLADIC (EARLY) Anonymous
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3rd millennium BCE Aegean Cycladic Sculpture

Snake Goddess.

MINOAN Anonymous (2800 BCE - 1100 BCE)
Faience
17th c BCE Aegean Minoan (Late) Sculpture

Palace of Knossos. Bull Fresco.

MINOAN Anonymous (2800 BCE - 1100 BCE)
Paint on plastered stone
17th-14th c BCE Aegean Minoan (Late) Painting

Room Delta 2.Spring Fresco.

CYCLADIC (LATE ) Anonymous
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17th c BCE Aegean Minoan Painting


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