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ATHENS AND ROME

Here is the Study Guide for Athens and Rome. You will be able to learn the information more effectively if you print out the section below and fill it in as you go through the text. There is a short self quiz at the end and a series of discussion questions which your instructor may ask you in class. If you are taking the course wholly on line, your instructor may ask you to answer in a short written essay.

1. Add the following to the map of the Aegean area in the back of the Study Guide: Athens and Rome. 2. Define or identify: Alexander Aphrodite Aristotle atrium entablature forum herringbone perspective impluvium metope pediment Pericles peristyle courtyard propylaea Phidias Plato Praxitiles Pythagoras Socrates Thucydides Vitruvius 3. The first democracy in history was established in ____________ in the _______ century. Who had the right to vote? 4. What city was head of the Delian League and what was its importance? 5. When did the Persians sack Athens? List four buildings that were constructed on the Athenian Acropolis in the 5th century: a. b. c. d. 6. In what ways does the Temple of Aphaia shown on #8 (gre02c64) illustrate the Greek concern for human reasons measure and logic? 7. What basic structural system was used by the Greeks? 8. Label the following parts on the diagram and identify the order: shaft, capital, volutes, entablature, architrave, cornice, triglyph, metope Order: Order: 9. On what parts of a Greek temple was sculptural decoration commonly used? 10. List four differences between the Doric and Ionic orders: Doric Ionic a. a. b. b. c. c. d. d. 11. Which temple is generally considered to be the culmination of the Greek attempt to utilize the most perfect proportions possible? List five adjustments or refinements made by the architects to aid in creating this effects. a. b. c. d. What was the main purpose of the building? What feature of the predominantly Doric building is typical of the Ionic style? Who were its architects? Who directed the sculpture? 12. Draw a simple plan of the Parthenon and label the cella and the colonnade. 13. What is the name of the figure that originally stood in the cella of the Parthenon? How large was it? What materials was it made of? What was the meaning of the figures carved on her shield? 14. What is the symbolic meaning of the victory of Theseus and the Lapiths over the Centaurs that was portrayed in the metopes of the Parthenon? 15. What was the theme of the sculptured frieze of the Parthenon? What were the themes of the decoration of the pediments? East: West: 16. List four stylistic characteristics of the High Classical phase of Greek art as seen in the figures from the Parthenon frieze #21 (gre02015) and the figures from the east pediment #23 (gre02012) and #25 (gre02011): a. b. c. d. 17. In what ways does the style of the male figure from the pediment of the Parthenon #24 (gre00049.cmp) differ from the figure of Herakles from the Athenian Treasury at Delphi? 18. Two Ionic buildings on the Athenian Acropolis are: a. b. 19. Identify the basic parts of a Greek theater. You might draw a diagram and label it. 21. Greek drama developed out of presentations offered in honor of the god __________________. 20. List three Greek dramatists: a. b. c. 21. List three issues considered in Aeschylus Orestaia that are still of concern and that help to account for the continuing popularity of his work. a. b. c. 22. The most famous Greek epic poet was _______________ while _________________ is considered to be the most famous Greek lyric poet. 23. What was the significance for modern science of the so-called Pre-Socratic" philosophers? 24. Briefly describe the Socratic Method: 25. What were the stages by which the Greek philosopher Socrates believed that human love was transformed into divine understanding? a. b. c. d. e. 26. Two Greek sculptors that best illustrate the Greek concern with proportion, beauty, and balance were ______________ and ______________. What was the canon of Polykleitos? 27. Briefly describe Plato's system of Ideal Forms: Why did Plato consider music to be more important than the visual arts? 28. Briefly describe the role of a traditional Greek wife: 29. What role did slavery play in ancient Greece? 30. List three stylistic features that are typical of Roman portraits during the Republican period. a. b. c. In what way might ancestor worship have influenced the style of Roman Republican portraits? 31. In what way does the portrait of the Roman general on #46 right (rom03024.cmp) differ from portraits of the Roman Republican period? If the figure does, in fact, represent Julius Caesar, what sort of political implications did it have? Describe three features of the so-called Augustus of Primaporta on the right that derive from the Greeks: a. b. c. 32. In what year did Augustus transform the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire? 33. When was the Ara Pacis Augustae commissioned ? What was it intended to commemorate? What two artistic traditions does it combine? 34. How do the portraits of Nero and Vespansian reflect their characters? 35. What is an "insula?" 36. What was the importance of the Roman system of roads? 37. What was the subject of the reliefs on Trajan's column? List four stylistic characteristics of the reliefs: a. b. c. d. What was the major purpose behind all these stylistic devices? 38. What was the Basilica Ulpia and where was it constructed? 39. What structural technique did Apollodorus of Damascus use to create the great market complex in Trajan's forum? 40. What were the functions of the following Roman structures: forum basilica 41. The eruption of Mount Vesuvius in the year _______covered the cities of ______________ and __________________ in a deep layer of ash. That tragedy, however, allows us an unparalleled opportunity to understand the daily life of an ancient city. 42. List four features of a typical Roman villa. Draw a sketch in the margin if you like. a. b. c. d. 43. What is considered us be the major, if not the unique, Roman contribution to painting? 44. Describe two devices that Roman painters used to suggest recession in depth. a. b. 45. Name two techniques that enabled the Romans to create an architecture of space rather than mass: a. b. 46. Describe the difference between a barrel vault and a groin vault. If you can, draw a picture of each. Barrel Vault: Groin Vault: What advantages does a groin vault have over a barrel vault? 47. What functions, beside sanitary ones, did Roman baths fulfill? 48. In what facility were horse races held in Rome? Using the mosaic shown on #72 (rom02c63), see what you can figure out about the decoration of the race course and the type of racing that was done. 49. What was the purpose of the Roman Colosseum? How did its structure differ from that of Greek amphitheaters? How was it decorated? 50. What is the meaning of the skeletons on the silver cup shown on # 79 (rom04078)? 51. Why is it thought that the equestrian portrait of Marcus Aurelius was not melted down for its bronze since that was the common fate of bronze figures? 52. What style of hair and beard was fashionable in 2nd century emperor portraits? What style became popular in the 3rd and 4th centuries? 53. What was the major significance of each of the following and in what century did each live? Augustus: Trajan: Constantine: SELF QUIZ Write the information requested for each image looking only at the thumbnail or enlarged image . When you have finished check your answers by consulting the appropriate "info" page. Give yourself 10% for every correct answer. Athens28: ARCHITECTURAL STYLE:___________________________________ Athens10: TITLE /NAME: _____________________________________ Athens6: CITY & COUNTRY:___________________________________ Athens#: TYPE OF STRUCTURE: ________________________________________ Athens65: STYLE & TECHNIQUE: _________________________________________ Athens21: PERIOD/STYLE: ___________________________________________ Athens57: PERIOD/STYLE: ______________________________________ Athens75: TITLE & CITY: _________________________________ Athens39: NAMES OF SCULPTORS: _________________________________ Athens46 : COUNTRY & STYLE : _________________________________ ATHENS & ROME DISCUSSION QUESTIONS Use the Athens & Rome Questions program to answer the following: 1. Compare the conception of the individual human being in Greek society and in the earlier societies of the ancient Near East. What effect did these beliefs have on the art produced by each and the way each culture perceived their gods? ( Suggested images: #01a (mes01c30), #01b (egy00004), #01c (gre03c35) #01d (egy01c26), and #01e (gre00017); #01f (egy02008) and #01g (gre02011). How do you think the torso from the Indus Valley #01h (ind00003) would relate to these two attitudes? 2. Discuss the role played by artists in giving form to Plato's metaphysical system of Ideal Forms that combined harmonic mathematical proportions, beauty, truth and virtue into a single cosmic system. Suggested images: #02a (gre02064.cmp), #02b (gre011c7), #02c (gre02043) and #02d (gre20083). 3. How did the Romans and the Greeks differ in their conceptions of architectural space? Include the Greek Parthenon #03a (gre20083), Trajan's Market #03b (rom02c11) and the Baths of Caracalla #03c (dia01c85), for your discussion. In what ways did the building techniques used by each determine the types of spaces that could be constructed? 4. What is meant by the term illusionism? Suggested Images: #04a (rom00008), #04b (rom04008) and #04b (rom04020). 5. What can we tell about the life of Greek and Roman women from the following images: Young woman from Pompeii #05a (rom04020); two funerary stele #05b (cld01018.cmp), two Greek vases #05c (gre00049.cmp); head of a Republican Woman #05d left (rom01012.cmp); head of Woman of the Imperial period #05f (rom01018.cmp); and the Woman with Bar Bells #05g right (rom02059.cmp). How do these figures reflect the changing concerns of women? 6. Analyze the stylistic differences between the reliefs from the Ara Pacis #06a (rom02085.cmp), the Column of Trajan #06b (rom03044), the workers on #06c (rom02014.cmp), the engineers at work on #06d (rom02074), the silver goblet #06e (rom04038), the Arch Of Constantine and the Temple of Athena Nike #06f (rom03079.cmp), and those from the Parthenon #06g (gre02015). In what ways does the style and the subject matter of these reliefs reflect the social, religious and political concerns of the society for whom each was made?

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