STUDY GUIDE: ISLAMIC MOSQUES AND PALACES:
ISLAMIC ART IN THE NEAR EAST, SPAIN AND INDIA
You will be able to learn the information more effectively if you print out the section below and fill it in as you go through the text. There is a short self quiz at the end and a series of discussion questions which your instructor may ask you in class. If you are taking the course wholly on line, your instructor may ask you to answer in a short written essay. 1. Add the following to the map of the Near East in the Study Guide: Mecca, Damascus, Jerusalem, Isfahan, Constantinople. 2. Identify or define: arabesque calligraphy hajj hegira iman iwan lusterware madresa Mameluk minaret minbar Moorish mosque muezzin mukarnas ogival arch qiblah wall Seljuk Turks stalactite dome 3. In which century was the religion of Islam established? Who was its founder? What is the difference between the meanings of the words "Islam" and "Muslim" or "Moslem"? 4. List three reasons that have been given for its rapid spread of Islam into the areas controlled by the old Roman/Byzantine and Persian empires: a. b. c. 5. Islamic Dynasties: Fill in the centuries for each dynasty and the territories they ruled: Ummayad: Abbasids: Safavids: Ottomans: Moghul Empire: 6. List the five duties that every Muslim must perform: a. b. c. d. e. 7. What was the Kaaba (ka'ba)? What is the meaning of the ritual of circumnavigating (walking around) it? 8. What reason can be given for the schematic presentation of the Sanctuary of Mecca shown on #5 (isl01006) ? List two stylistic characteristics of Islamic art that it represents: a. b. 9. What major change has been made in the shape of the 17th century minaret compared with the 9th century one shown on #7 (isl01018.cmp)? 10. What was the primary purpose of the fountain that was an important feature of the courtyards of Islamic mosques? 11. Describe the structure of a Hypostyle mosque. Draw an illustration of one. What religious practice influenced the development of this architectural form? 12. What is the significance of the quibla wall? What was the mirab? What was the function of the minbar? 13. What was the purpose of a prayer rug? What was often portrayed on them? 14. What is the significance of the rock in the center of the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem? What was the model for the structure of the building? What reason was given by Moslem historians for the elaborate decoration of the building? 15. List three aspects of the Great Mosque of Damascus that were influenced by the Greco/Roman tradition. a. b. c. What major change had to be made in the Early Christian basilica to make it suitable for Islamic worship? 16. What feature relates the statue of Ummayyad Caliph Hisham to the Biblical King Solomon? 17. Although there are borrowings from both the Persians and the Romans in the Entrance Gate of the Palace of Qasr al-Heir and in the tower base from Mshatta, one feature is typically Islamic. What is it? 18. What is a houri? How might the material have influenced the proportions of the houri from the Palace of Hhirbat al-Maafjar shown on #27 (isl01074)? 19. Give two devices that create the two-dimensional effect seen in the fresco painting on #29 (isl01072) and the bowl on #30 (isl01065): a. b. 20. What religious requirement lead to literacy and knowledge of Arabic for all Muslim males? List two benefits for society, other than religious, of this requirement. a. b. 21. What type of arches are used in the mosque at Cordoba? 22. Name two architectural features that served as the basis of the Gothic structural system which were used by Islamic architects primarily for decoration: a. b. 23. List two Moorish features used in the Jewish Synagogue in Toledo seen in #36 (spa01050): a. b. 24. What is the difference between "Moorish" and "Mudejar" art in Spain? 25. What happened to the Jews and Muslims in Spain in the 15th century? 26. What is the Alhambra? Where and when was it built? 27. What was the name of the structural element that formed the basis of stalactite domes? Draw a picture of one if you can. 28. List two techniques utilized by Moslem engineers to provide water for irrigation and decoration: a. b. 29. List four fields in which Arab scholars provided translations of works by Greek and Roman writers: a. b. c. d. 30. List three types of structures that were incorporate in the Foundation of Sultan Hasan in Cairo: a. b. c. 31. When did the Muslims conquer Constantinople? What did they name it? What was the name of the Muslim dynasty that conquered it? 32. List five elements which the mosques designed by Sinan shared with older hypostyle mosques: a. b. c. d. e. List three ways that his mosques differed from them: a. b. c. What Christian building influenced his work? 33. What was the purpose of a caravansary? Why were they often related to mosques? List three architectural features of the Sultan Hani. a. b. c. 34. Isfahan was the name of the capital city of the _______________dynasty of ancient Persia. They ruled from ______________ to ______________. 35. Name three of major buildings that were integrated into the design of the monumental Royal Square of Isfahan. a. b. c. In what century was the Royal Square constructed? 36. List. three stylistic characteristics of Moslem decorative art as seen in the tile work of the Madar-i-Shah in Isfahan: a. b. c. 37. List three forms of applied art in which Islamic artists excelled: a. b. c. What reason might there be for the rich repertoire of decorative forms developed by Moslem artists? 38. List three stylistic characteristics of Islamic manuscript decoration as seen in the miniature on #68 (isl01096): a. b. c. 39. Who was Omar Kaayam? 40. The most famous of all Islamic mausoleums is the ____________________ which was built in the_________________ century in __________________. What makes the building so much more beautiful than the replica shown on #71 (ind01099.cmp)? SELF QUIZ Write the information requested for each image looking only at the thumbnail or enlarged image . When you have finished check your answers by consulting the appropriate "info" page. Give yourself 10% for every correct answer. #15: COUNTRY: ______________________________________ #10: TYPE OF STRUCTURE _____________________________________ #63: STYLE:___________________________________ #34: COUNTRY: ______________________________________ #25: TYPE OF STRUCTURE: ___________________________________________ #39: COUNTRY: ______________________________________ # 48: TYPE OF VAULT: _________________________________ #14: TYPE OF STRUCTURE: _________________________________________ #52: STYLE: _________________________________ #57: STRUCTURAL TYPE OR USE : _________________________________ ISLAMIC DISCUSSION QUESTIONS Use the Islamic Questions program to answer the following: 1. What are theessential parts of a hypostyle mosque. Use the plan on #01a ( dia01043) and the images on #01b (isl4002) #01c (isl01027), #01d (syr01104) and #01e (isl01037). 2. How did the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem #02a (isl01008) and the mosques created by Sinon for the Ottomans differ from the traditional hypostyle structure? Use #02b (dia01043), #02c (isl01027), #02e (isl03086), #02g (isl03088). In what ways do you think Sinan was influenced by Hagia Sophia #02d (byz02002) and #02f (byz02008.cmp)? 3. Compare the style of The Chinese Bride #03a (isl04056) with the Mule Caravan #03b (isl03030) and with the image of Bahrum Gur in the Turquoise Pavilion on # 03c (isl01096) considering the differences in the representations of the human beings and the animals as well as the treatment of space and the details of the landscape. 4. What was the function of a caravansary? Discuss the way its function influenced its design. Use #04a(isl03030), #04b (isl03022) and #04c (isl03029). What similarities do you see to the Medieval European church shown on #04d (frm00007)? What do you think accounts for the similarity ? 5. What do you think makes the Taj Mahal shown on #05a (isl01096) so much more beautiful than its imitation shown on the bottom of #05b (isl01099.cmp)? In what way are proportions related to beauty?
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SAFAVID Anonymous (1502 - 1773)
17th c Iranian (Persian) Safavid Painting
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