STUDY GUIDE: DARK AGES
You will be able to learn the information more effectively if you print out the section below and fill it in as you go through the text. There is a short self quiz at the end and a series of discussion questions which your instructor may ask you in class. If you are taking the course wholly on line, your instructor may ask you to answer in a short written essay.
1. Find the following on the map of Europe: Lindesfarn, Sutton Hoo, Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle), Hildesheim. Check the map in this lesson for their locations. 2. Define or identify: Attila Alcuin Benedictine Rule Bishop Bernward Cernunnos Charlemagne Druids ex-voto fibula Holy Roman Empire St. Patrick stave church Sutton Hoo 3. The years generally encompassed within the period known as the Dark Ages are____ to ____. List two historical phenomenon that characterized the period. a. b. 4. Name the two general traditions whose synthesis formed the basis for Medieval civilization. a. b. 5. What is a twisted torque? 6. Who were the Celts and where are they thought to have originated? Where did Attalus I encounter them? What areas were occupied by the Celtic peoples during Greco-Roman times? 7. List three characteristics of the Celtic style: a. b. c. 8. In what way were Hellenistic and Roman motifs transformed by the peoples of Northern Europe who tried to copy them: 9. What was the original homeland of the Germanic peoples? 10. List three ways in which Germanic decoration differed from Celtic decoration: a. b. c. 11. Who were the Huns? In what century did they invade Europe and what was the result of their invasion? 12. Where were the Steppes? List three groups of nomads that originated there: a. b. c. Name the general style that is associated with the Steppes: 13. List three stylistic characteristics of the Animal Style popular in Luristan: a. b. c. 14. Who were the Scythians? In what area did they encounter the Greeks and the Persians? In what centuries? What medium did they particularly appreciate. 15. List two characteristics of the Scythian version of the Animal Style: a. b. 16. In what way were the legendary Amazons associated with the Scythians and Sarmatians? 17. By what means are Chinese motifs thought to have been transmitted to the Germanic tribes of Europe? 18. When did the Germanic peoples begin to move out of their homeland toward the south and east? List two reasons that have been given for the great migrations of the Germanic peoples: a. b. What effect did their migrations have on the Roman empire? The following dates are generally given for the so-called Migration Period: ___________ to ___________. 19. Where did the following Germanic tribes settle? Saxons: Franks: Ostrogoths: Burgundians: Visigoths: Lombards: 20. Describe the technique of granulation: Describe the technique of cloisonné: 21. Describe two stylistic characteristics of Migration jewelry decoration as seen in the fibula illustrated on #30 (mig01057): a. b. 22. What are the probable sources of the animal motifs used by the Germanic Migration artists? 23. What is the importance of the Sutton Hoo ship burial? 24. What is the Christian meaning of a man flanked by lions? 25. Who was Clovis and what was the effect of his conversion to Christianity? 26. How did the sculpture produced by the Germanic artisans compare with their metalworking? 27. List two subjects that were used to decorate the Franks Casket on #46 (mig00008). a. b. 28. What is meant by the term “hermetic monasticism”? List two areas where it was practiced: a. b. 29. What is meant by the stylistic designation of “Hiberno-Saxon”? 30. List two elements that went into the creation of the legend of the Holy Grail: a. b. 31. Write down the Germanic stylistic characteristics that are apparent in Hiberno-Saxon Carpet Page on #53 (med03003). a. b. Compare it to the Hiberno-Saxon figurative style on #54 (med03002). 32. What is an illumination? 33. What is the most likely inspiration for the evangelist figure from the Book of Durrow shown on # 54 (med03002)? What feature leads to that conclusion? 34. What do the Greek letters Chi Rho symbolize? 35. List four Celtic stylistic characteristics found in the Book of Kells: a. b. c. d. 36. What Germanic tradition is possibly reflected in the plant forms that envelop the Crucifixion carved on the Rune Stone on #60 (mig00007) done for King Harold of Denmark? 37. In what centuries did the marauding Vikings harass the rest of Europe? 38. Name the French territory that had been given to the Vikings to stop their raids: 39. List two characteristics of Viking art: a. b. 40. When did Charlemagne have himself crowned Emperor of the Romans? Whose power was he attempting to revive? 41. What is the function of a scriptorium? What is a codex? 42. What function did Early Christian manuscripts and ivory carvings play for Charlemagne’s artists? 43. Write down two stylistic characteristics of Carolingian illuminators of the Palace School: a. b. 44. List two ways in which the illustrations of the Ebbo Gospels differ from those of the Palace School: a. b. 45. What happened to Charlemagne’s empire after his death? 46. From what did the Ottonian period derive its name? In what century did it predominate? The territory ruled by the Ottonian emperors included the modern countries of _________________ and ______________. 47. What did Emperor Otto I offer to Christ in the ivory carving shown on #71 (grm01017)? What was the purpose of such a depiction? 48. Give one reason for the strong influence of Byzantine art styles in Ottonian art: List two stylistic characteristics that they adopted: a. b. 49. List two stylistic features seen in Ottonian miniatures such as the one on #73 (grm01012) that were not apparent in earlier Carolingian illumination? a. b. 50. What is a crucifix? What is the name of the first monumental crucifix in European art? 51. Who cast the great bronze doors of the church of St. Michael’s at Hildesheim? When? What is depicted on the doors of St. Michael’s shown on #75 (grm01039) ? 52. What is an antitype? 53. What is a “crossing square” and what is its function in the church of St. Michael’s at Hildesheim? In what way would the ideas begun at Hildesheim be developed in later Medieval architecture? SELF QUIZ Write the information requested for each image looking only at the thumbnail or enlarged image . When you have finished check your answers by consulting the appropriate “info” page. Give yourself 10% for every correct answer. #76: COUNTRY & STYLE: ______________________________________ #38: SITE: _____________________________________ #55: STYLE:___________________________________ #04: NAME OF OBJECT (LEFT) & STYLE: ______________________________________ #30: NAME OF OBJECT AND STYLE: ___________________________________________ #73: COUNTRY: ______________________________________ #18: STYLE: _________________________________ #75: STYLE: _________________________________________ #68: STYLE & TITLE: _________________________________ #62: STYLE: _________________________________ DARK AGES & MEDIEVAL REVIVAL QUESTIONS Use the Dark Ages Questions program and answer the following: 1. Describe the origins of the animal style and discuss its transformation by the Germanic and Celtic tribes who adopted it. Select six images from: #01a-s (mig00004), (mig01c28, (mig01c60), (mes01c91), (mig01c67), (slk02083)), (slk02c073), (mig000c1), (mig01057), (mig000c2), (mig01094), (mig01c95) (mig01066), #01o (med03003), (med03002), (med03011), (med03009) (mig00007) and (mig00009). 2. Discuss the interaction of the Roman illusionist tradition with the barbarian tradition of linear decoration in manuscript illumination of the Early Medieval period. Use #01o (med03002), #01q (med03009), #02a (med03c64.), and #02b (grm01012). 3. In what ways can the plans of St. Gall #03c (dia02036) and the church of St. Michael's at Hildesheim # 03d (grm01c75.) be related to the Germanic sense of design as manifested in Frankish ornaments #03a (mig01057 and # 03b (mig01c69) and to the medieval way of thinking? What importance do these buildings have for later Romanesque architecture? 4. Discuss the historical and political factors represented by the images of Otto I and Otto II shown on #04a (grm01017), #04b (grm01002) and #04c (grm01012). In what ways do these images related to the previous history we have studied as well as to the changing political and religious situation in Europe? 5. Compare the abstract decorative art of the Early Middle Ages in Europe as seen in the ornamental page of the Book of Durrow #05a (med03003) with the Islamic decorative style as seen in the carpet shown in the Islamic lesson #05b (isl01089). In what ways do they resemble each other, and what is distinctive about each?
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BRONZE AGE Anonymous (c. 2000 BCE - c. 500 BCE)
6th-5th c BCE European Germanic Migration Metalwork
CELTIC Anonymous (c. 450 BCE - c. 1150 CE)
1st c BCE European Celtic Metalwork
SCANDINAVIAN BRONZE AGE Anonymous (c. 2000 BCE - c. 500 BCE)
8th-6th c BCE European Bronze Age Applied Arts
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