THOSE WHO FIGHT, THOSE WHO PRAY & THOSE WHO WORK: THE ART OF THE ROMANESQUE PERIOD
You will be able to learn the information more effectively if you print out the section below and fill it in as you go through the text. There is a short self quiz at the end and a series of discussion questions which your instructor may ask you in class. If you are taking the course wholly on line, your instructor may ask you to answer in a short written essay.
1. Add the following to the map or Europe : Paris, Autun, Moissac, Cluny, Conques, Toulouse, and Santiago de Compostela. 2. Define the following: ambulatory Apocalypse apse bay (architectural term) buttress chalice chevet choir Cistercians cloister crenellated battlements Hospitalers jambs lintel pilaster radiating chapel reliquary Saracens Templars transepts trumeau tympanum voussoirs 3. Briefly identiy the following individuals: Frederick II Giselbertus Hildegard von Bingen Innocent II Roger I St Bernard St James (Santiago) William the Conqueror 4. Write down five of the social and economic changes that took place during the 11th and 12th centuries in Western Europe: a. b. c. d. e. 5. List the three major divisions of medieval society: a. b. c. 6. Briefly describe the system known as Feudalism. What was the economic base of feudal society? 7. List three developments that increased agricultural productivity: a. b. c. 8. What is depicted on the Bayeux tapestry? 9. What sort of buildings did the Normans construct in England to let the Saxons know that they were there to stay? 10. What was the name of the Norman conqueror of Sicily? List four ways in which his son was influenced by the Molsem culture he found there: a. b. c. d. 11. List two Islamic features of the Cathedral of Cefalu #20 (spa01073). a. b. Write down one Byzantine element seen in the building: 12. Frederick II of Sicily was crowned ______________________ by Innocent III in 1220. Why was he excommunicated? 13. In what year did Pope Urban give the call for the first crusade? Why? Crusading was most important from the ________ through the _________ centuries. 14. Where was the Krak des Chevaliers constructed? Describe it: 15. List four effects of the Crusades: a. b. c. d. 16. What was the cult of relics? List two relics that St. Louis brought back from his crusade: a. b. 17. List four Near Eastern motifs that appeared in Romanesque art: a. b. c. d. 18. During what period did the Christian devil take on the features of a hideous monster? 19. How was the vice of Lust represented in Romanesque art? 20. Briefly describe the different explanations of death given by the Sumerians and the Christians: 21. What was the common monastic view of woman during the 11th and 12th centuries? 22. What did the French art historian Focillon believe was the basis of the Romanesque concept of form? What effect did that have on the representation of human figures? Descibe how the principle can be applied to a work like the manuscript illumination in #43 right (med02049.cmp). 23. How was St. Bernard’s concern for simplicity expressed in Cistercian buildings? 24. Give one example of architectural symbolism found in a Cisterian church. 25. Where is Santiago de Compostella and why was it important during the Medieval period? 26. What was the purpose of the ambulatory with radiating chapels found in so many Romanesque churches? 27. Label the following parts on the plan belows ambulatory, apses bay, buttress, crossing, nave, transept, radiating chapels, aisles choir 28. Monks of the great Abbey of Cluny followed the _________________rule. Like many other churches built in the area of Burgundy, it was vaulted with _________________. 29. List four characteristics of pilgrimage churches shared by the churches of St. Sernin, Toulouse and St. Foy, Conques. a. b. c. d. 30. List two advantages of using vaults with transverse arches rather than barrel vaults: a. b. 31. What is portrayed on the tympanum of the church of St. Foy at Conques? 32. Who was St. Foy and what powers were her relics believed to possess? Why was the reliquary of St. Foy carried around the fields each spring?
33. Label the following parts of a Romanesque portal on the diagram: lintel, tympanum, archivolts, voussoirs trumeau and jambs. 34. The subject of the west tympanum of St. Lazare at Autun is__________________. List three stylistic characteristics of the figures: a. b. c. 35. How were souls generally depicted in Medieval art? 36. What is depicted on the central portal of the narthex at Vezelay? 37. How might it be said that the tympanum of Vezelay was influenced by the Crusades? 38. List three ways in which the figure of Jeremiah from the trumeau of Moissac expresses the fully developed Romanesque sculptural style: a. b. c. 39. The subject carved on the tympanum at Moissac is ___________________. Included in the tympanum are the sumbols of the Evangelists who were symbolized by figures of: a. b. c. d. How does the style of the figures differ from the style of those carved at Autun and Vezelay? 40. In what role is Christ represented in the fresco from Tahull on #70 (spa00003)? In what way does the style emphasize the meaning of the image? 41. What qualities did the cult of the Virgin Mary gradually introduce into 12th century religious worship? How was the Virgin commonly represented in the 12th century? 42. List two reasons that have been given for the color of the popular Black Virgins: a. b. 43. The “Scivias” recorded and illustrated the visions of the extraordinary 12th century abbess named _________________________. List three characteristics of the style of the illustrations: a. b. c. 44. What church was the goal of the pilgrims to Spain? How does the spirit of the image of Christ seen on the Portal of Glory differ from those on the other Romanesque portals we have seen? SELF QUIZ Write the information requested for each image looking only at the thumbnail or enlarged image . When you have finished check your answers by consulting the appropriate “info” page. Give yourself 10% for every correct answer. #12: SUBJECT: ______________________________________ #46: NAME OF OBJECT: _____________________________________ #38: STYLE:___________________________________ #26: TYPE OF THE BUILDING: ______________________________________ #49: TYPE OF VAULT: ___________________________________________ #58: NAME OF OBJECT: ______________________________________ #65: STYLE: ________________________________ #67: SUBJECT: _________________________________________ #66: CENTURY: _________________________________ #60: SUBJECT & STYLE: _________________________________ FIGHT AND PRAY DISCUSSION QUESTIONS Use the Fight and Pray Questions program to answer the following: 1. How did the art created for the Normans William the Conqueror and Roger II differ? See #01a(med06054), #01b (spa01063), #01c (med06067), and #01d (med00023). What might account for the differences? 2. Discuss the Romanesque attitude toward women as seen in the images of Lust #02a (med02029), Eve #02b (frm01041), St. Foy #02c (med02065) and #02d (med02078, the Virgin Mary #02e (frm00018) and the Black Virgins #02f (med02021.cmp). 3. Describe the basic parts of Romanesque church using the plan of the church of Cluny shown the right on #03a (frm01080.cmp) and the church of St. Foy, Conques on # 03b (med02092), #03c (med02072), and # 03d (med02087). 4. Compare the carvings from St. Foy at Conques #04a (med02068) with the portal sculpture from Moissac #04b (med02041), Autun #04c (frm01063), Vezelay #04d (frm01034) and Santiago de Compostela #04e (med02007). What is the subject of each portal, and how do they differ? How do they relate to Focillon's idea that Romanesque sculpture must fit its frame? 5. What were the reasons for the Crusades and what effect did they have on Europe?
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