STUDY GUIDE: THE GOTHIC SEARCH FOR TRANSCENDENCE
You will be able to learn the information more effectively if you print out the section below and fill it in as you go through the text. There is a short self quiz at the end and a series of discussion questions which your instructor may ask you in class. If you are taking the course wholly on line, your instructor may ask you to answer in a short written essay. 1. Define of identify the following: boss (as used in architecture) clerestory finial gargoyle lancet window lierne misericord ogival arch pendant vaulting ridge rib rose window quadripartite vaults stellar vault Thomas Aquinas tierceron triforium 2. How was the universe represented during the Gothic period? What was in the center? How many crystal spheres revolved around the earth? What was attached to them? How were the various elements of the universe linked to one another? 3. How the importance of mathematics emphasized by the 13th century representation of God shown on #2 (med00019). 4. Give the medieval meaning of the following philosophical terms: Realism Nominalism Scholasticism 5. What was the meaning of the mystic number seven? 6. Where and when is the Gothic style said to have originated? 7. Who was Abbot Suger? How did he believe that the soul could be led to God? 8. What was the role of stained glass windows in medieval churches? 9. What was the Tree of Jesse? 10. What is “typology?” List a prototype of Christ's crucifixion: List two prototypes of his resurrection: 11. Why did St. Bernard call the Abbey of St. Denis the “synagogue of Satan”? 12. What advantage was there in the use of the Gothic pointed rib vaults over the semicircular Romanesque ones? 13. List three features that formed the basis of the Gothic structural system. a. b. c. 14. What was the purpose of flying buttresses? 15. Give the centuries in which the following styles flourished. Romanesque: Early & High Gothic: Late Gothic: 16. Label the appropriate parts of a Gothic Church on the diagram below: clerestory, flying buttress, nave arcade, triforium, vaults, finial 17. To whom is Chartres Cathedral dedicated? What sort of sacred site was located at Chartres before a Christian church was built? 18. How is the Virgin Mary represented in Chartres Cathedral? 19. What did Queen Blanche of Castille contribute to Chartres Cathedral? How was her role as Regent of France reflected in its iconography? 20. What changes did the architects to the cathedral of Notre Dame Paris after the fire to adapt it to the new High Gothic style? 21. List two similarities in the facades of Notre Dame Paris and of Amiens Cathedral. a. b. And two differences: a. b. 22. What sort of vaults were built in Amiens cathedral? 23. Which French cathedral had the highest vaults? What happened to them? 24. How did the structure of the Sainte Chapelle in Paris reflect its purpose? 25. The following features differentiate Salisbury Cathedral from French High Gothic churches: a. b. c. d. 26. The Decorated Gothic style flourished in England from about _______to______. It was characterized by: a. b. 27. List two Decorated Gothic features seen at St. Mary Redcliffe seen on#31 (brm01055.cmp) that resemble Islamic forms like those seen on the Islamic mosque in Cordoba. a. b. 28. Identify or define: chivalry drolleries Ecclesia gargoyle Golden Legend green man grisaille memento mori pieta 29. Write down four pairs of opposites that were brought into balance in 13th century High Gothic art and thought: a. b. c. d. 30. The figures from the Royal Portal of Chartres (#3 frm03021) are the earliest and most complete surviving Early Gothic portal, were begun in the year __________. The following scenes are represented on the tympana: Right: Central: Left: 31. The figures carved on the Jambs (#34 frm03027) represent: List three ways in which these jamb figures differ significantly from Romanesque figures: a. b. c. 32. The figures from the South Portal of Chartres seen on #36 (frm03062) and #38 right (frm03026.cmp) were carved from _______to____ They differ from the figures of the Royal Portal in the following respects: a. b. c. 33. The figure of St. Theodore #37 left (frm03070) was added to the South Portal around _________. He differs from the figure of St. Stephen on the right in the following respects: a. b. c. 34. What form was used for the reliquary seen on the left of #14 (grm01061.cmp) ? 35. Where was the Mosan Region located? For what art form were Mosan artists famous? 36. Give the stylistic characteristics of the following masters or groups which worked at Reims: Visitation Master: Amiens Atelier: Joseph Master: Which style was to have the greatest influence on 14th century art? 37. Describe the pose known as the “Gothic sway”. During what century was it most popular? 38. List the four mirrors that composed the Great Mirror of Vincent of Beauvais? a. b. c. d. 39. How did the Gothic view of nature differ from that commonly held during the Romanesque period? 40. What key event was the first incident in the Mirror of Knowledge? 41. How were the representations of the months shown on medieval cathedrals? 42. What explanation can be given for the representations of various occupations that are found at the base of many Gothic stained glass windows? List four trades that were represented in medieval stained glass windows: a. b. c. d. 43. What were the favorite colors of 13th century stained glass makers? 44. Medieval trade fairs were often held in connection with ___________________. 45. Why did Jews become involved in long-distance trade and in banking? What is a pogrom? 46. List the subject that were included in the Medieval Quadrivium: a. b. c. d. List those that were included in the Trivium: a. b. c. 47. How were the Virtues represented on Gothic cathedrals? How were the Vices represented? 48. Draw a quatrefoil. 49. Into what three eras did medieval theologians divide history? a. b. c. To which era do the figures on the north facade of Chartres cathedral belong? To which era do the figures portrayed on the south side belong? 50. What is the meaning of the negro page included under the feet of the Queen of Sheba? 51. What was the subject of the central portal from the north side of Chartres Cathedral? 52. What type of figures were depicted on the south facade of Chartres Cathedral? 53. What was the subject of the central portal? How does the Christ differ from the images of Christ usually depicted on Romanesque tympana? 54. What features of the images from Reims cathedral shown on #65 (frm00025.cmp) can be said to sum up the spirit of the High Gothic period? 55. List two works commissioned by the French queen, Jeanne d'Evreux: a. b. List two stylistic features that they share: a. b. 56. Who was Eleanor of Aquitaine ? 57. List four characteristics of a medieval knight who practiced the code of Chivalry: a. b. c. d. 58. Describe the concept of Courtly Love: How accurately did the concepts of Courtly Love reflect the real conditions of Medieval women? 59. When did the Black Plague strike in Europe? What explanations were given for its visitations? What changes in art could be attributed to its influence? 60. How do Late Gothic representations of the Virgin like the Pieta shown on #76 (med05017)and the Madonna of Mercy shown on # 77 (med05058) relate to representations of the Great Goddess made by earlier cultures? SELF QUIZ Write the information requested for each image looking only at the thumbnail or enlarged image . When you have finished check your answers by consulting the appropriate “info” page. Give yourself 10% for every correct answer. #64: SUBJECT: ______________________________________ #33: TITLE & SITE: _____________________________________ #17 : STYLE:___________________________________ #12: PART OF THE BUILDING: ______________________________________ #16 : TYPE OF WINDOWS: ___________________________________________ #19: COUNTRY: ______________________________________ #31: STYLES: L. ___________________R. ______________ #34: TYPE OF FIGURE: _________________________________________ #61: CENTURY: _________________________________ #76: SUBJECT & STYLE: _________________________________ GOTHIC DISCUSSION QUESTIONS Use the Gothic Questions program to answer the following: 1. Discuss the evolution of architectural form from Early Christian through Gothic, considering changes in plan, elevations, and construction methods. Use Old St. Peters #01a (dia02c13), Santa Maria Maggiore #01b (byz01069), St. Michael's Hildesheim #01c (grm01c75), Cluny #01d (frm01c83.), St. Foy Conques #01e,f (med02072, med02087), Chartres Cathedral #01g,h (frm03c17, frm03012), and Amiens #01i,j (frm04002, frm00c20). 2. How did the representations of Christ change from Early Christian times through the Gothic period? Consider the following representations: #02a The Good Shepherd (byz01005), and the images from S. Pudenziana #02b (bzy01058), Moissac #02c (med02041), Chartres #02d (frm03059), the ivory Descent from the Cross #02e (med04016) and the Pieta #02f (med05017). What historical factors do you think might have contributed to these different representations? 3. Discuss the changing attitudes toward women in the Medieval period using the following images: Lust #03a (med02029), female devil #03b (med01088), La Belle Verriere #03c (frm03004), Eleanor of Aquitaine #03d (frm00033), the game of chess #03e (spa01088) and the female merchant shown on #03f (frm05069).
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FRENCH EARLY GOTHIC Anonymous (c. 1140 - 1194)
12th c French Gothic (Early) Glass
FRENCH HIGH GOTHIC Anonymous (c. 1200 - 1350)
13th c French Gothic (High) Glass
FRENCH HIGH GOTHIC Anonymous (c. 1200 - 1350)
13th c French Gothic (High) Architecture
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