{ "objects" : [ { "embark_ID" : 7421, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/7421", "Disp_Access_No" : "Mes02049", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "c. 2700-2600 BCE", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "", "_Disp_End_Date" : "", "Disp_Title" : "Temple of Sin. Banquet plaque.", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "SUMERIAN Anonymous (3500 BCE - 2000 BCE)", "Sort_Artist" : "SUMERIAN Anonymous", "Disp_Dimen" : "", "Disp_Height" : "", "Disp_Width" : "", "Dimen_Extent" : "", "Medium" : "Gypsum", "Support" : "", "Disp_Medium" : "Gypsum", "Info_Page_Comm" : "Early Dynastic.", "Dedication" : "SUMERIAN | Temple of Sin. Banquet plaque. | c. 2700-2600 BCE | Mesopotamian | Sumerian", "Copyright_Type" : "Permission", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Sculpture", "Creation_Place2" : "Mesopotamian", "Department" : "Chicago. University of Chicago. ", "Obj_Name" : "", "Period" : "Ancient", "Style" : "Sumerian (Eary Dynastic)", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/mes02049.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/mes02049.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/mes02049.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/mes02049.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "22778", "Image_Type" : "", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 49191, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/49191", "Disp_Access_No" : "brtm1132", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "c. 2700 BCE-2600 BCE", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "2700 BCE", "_Disp_End_Date" : "2600 BCE", "Disp_Title" : "Cylinder seals & modern impressions.", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "Cylinder seals & modern impressions. ", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "SUMERIAN EARLY DYNASTIC Anonymous (2900 BCE - 2730 BCE)", "Sort_Artist" : "SUMERIAN EARLY DYNASTIC Anonymous", "Disp_Dimen" : "", "Disp_Height" : "", "Disp_Width" : "", "Dimen_Extent" : "", "Medium" : "", "Support" : "", "Disp_Medium" : "", "Info_Page_Comm" : "Early Dynastic II and III.", "Dedication" : "SUMERIAN EARLY DYNASTIC | Cylinder seals & modern impressions. | c. 2700 BCE-2600 BCE | Mesopotamian | Sumerian", "Copyright_Type" : "Permission", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Applied Arts", "Creation_Place2" : "Mesopotamian", "Department" : "London. ", "Obj_Name" : "", "Period" : "Ancient", "Style" : "Sumerian (Eary Dynastic)", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/brtm1132.JPG", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/brtm1132.JPG", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/brtm1132.JPG", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/brtm1132.JPG", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "54778", "Image_Type" : "", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 79510, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/79510", "Disp_Access_No" : "ancemp04.mes01014", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "2900 BCE-2600 BCE", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "2900 BCE", "_Disp_End_Date" : "2600 BCE", "Disp_Title" : "Tablet & envelope.", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "Tablet & envelope.", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "SUMERIAN Anonymous (3500 BCE - 2000 BCE)", "Sort_Artist" : "SUMERIAN Anonymous", "Disp_Dimen" : "", "Disp_Height" : "", "Disp_Width" : "", "Dimen_Extent" : "", "Medium" : "Terracotta", "Support" : "", "Disp_Medium" : "Terracotta", "Info_Page_Comm" : "Writing was extremely important in the development of civilization because it allowed people to record what they knew and to easily transmit it to others. The oral tradition was limited to passing on only what knowledge individuals could remember. Although many cultures based exclusively on oral traditions were able to develop civilizations, it was a much more difficult task. Written documents allowed for a much greater accumulation of the knowledge that was available to society. Written documents also facilitated distance trading since instructions and contracts could be carried easily from one place to another. As a matter of fact, the earliest written documents that we have discovered are the contracts of Sumerian traders, for it was along the trade routes that ideas as well as goods traveled. Early Assyrian traders had a great network that stretched from Anatolia, in what is now Turkey, to the Indus Valley in Pakistan. The Sumerians developed a type of writing known as CUNEIFORM. A blunt wedge-shaped instrument impressed the forms into damp clay which was later baked and so preserved. Cuneiform was used not only by the Sumerians, but also by the Akkadians, the Babylonians and the Assyrians, each using it to record their own language. Many of these documents were commercial contracts and were preserved because of a fire. ", "Dedication" : "SUMERIAN | Tablet & envelope. | | Mesopotamian | Sumerian", "Copyright_Type" : "permission", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Document", "Creation_Place2" : "Mesopotamian", "Department" : "Brussels. Belgium. ", "Obj_Name" : "Tablet", "Period" : "Ancient", "Style" : "Sumerian (Eary Dynastic)", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/mes01014.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/mes01014.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/mes01014.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/mes01014.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "70402", "Image_Type" : "", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 7293, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/7293", "Disp_Access_No" : "mes01014", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "2900 BCE-2600 BCE", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "2900 BCE", "_Disp_End_Date" : "2600 BCE", "Disp_Title" : "Tablet & envelope.", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "Tablet & envelope.", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "SUMERIAN Anonymous (3500 BCE - 2000 BCE)", "Sort_Artist" : "SUMERIAN Anonymous", "Disp_Dimen" : "", "Disp_Height" : "", "Disp_Width" : "", "Dimen_Extent" : "", "Medium" : "Terracotta", "Support" : "", "Disp_Medium" : "Terracotta", "Info_Page_Comm" : "Many of these documents were commercial contracts and were preserved because of a fire. ", "Dedication" : "SUMERIAN | Tablet & envelope. | | Mesopotamian | Sumerian", "Copyright_Type" : "permission", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Sculpture", "Creation_Place2" : "Mesopotamian", "Department" : "Brussels. Belgium. ", "Obj_Name" : "Tablet", "Period" : "Ancient", "Style" : "Sumerian (Eary Dynastic)", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/mes01014.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/mes01014.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/mes01014.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/mes01014.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "22652", "Image_Type" : "", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] }, ] }