{ "objects" : [ { "embark_ID" : 90776, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/90776", "Disp_Access_No" : "wash1159", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "1200 BCE-1100 BCE", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1200 BCE", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1100 BCE", "Disp_Title" : "Wine Container with Jade Beads (You).", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "Wine Container with Jade Beads (You). ", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "SHANG DYNASTY Anonymous (1527 BCE - 1027 BCE)", "Sort_Artist" : "SHANG DYNASTY Anonymous", "Disp_Dimen" : "", "Disp_Height" : "", "Disp_Width" : "", "Dimen_Extent" : "", "Medium" : "Bronze", "Support" : "", "Disp_Medium" : "Bronze", "Info_Page_Comm" : "", "Dedication" : "SHANG Anonymous | Wine Container with Jade Beads (You). | 1200 BCE-1100 BCE | Chinese | Shang | ┬ęKathleen Cohen | wash1159", "Copyright_Type" : "Permission", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Metalwork", "Creation_Place2" : "Chinese", "Department" : "Washington DC.", "Obj_Name" : "Vessel", "Period" : "Ancient", "Style" : "Shang", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/wash1159.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/wash1159.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/wash1159.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/wash1159.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "79574", "Image_Type" : "", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 83290, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/83290", "Disp_Access_No" : "Transform31.Ch01007", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "1200 BCE-1100 BCE", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1200 BCE", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1100 BCE", "Disp_Title" : "Fang Ye. Ritual food container. House shaped.", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "Fang Ye. Ritual food container. House shaped.", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "SHANG DYNASTY Anonymous (1527 BCE - 1027 BCE)", "Sort_Artist" : "SHANG DYNASTY Anonymous", "Disp_Dimen" : "", "Disp_Height" : "", "Disp_Width" : "", "Dimen_Extent" : "", "Medium" : "", "Support" : "", "Disp_Medium" : "", "Info_Page_Comm" : "The Chinese were the first to develop bronze into a true artistic medium, as we see in this magnificent ritual vessel that was found in a tomb. Several centuries earlier the peoples of the Yellow River Valley had been brought together under the rule of one tribe, the Shang; and it is with them that many date the coming of civilization to China. In addition to creating the first unified state, the Shang developed writing. The first characters were found on bones that are thought to have been used for divination, which is foretelling the future. The characters also appear on the bronzes themselves. The Shang used bronze to create a whole variety of bronze vessels: containers for food, water and wine as well as ritual objects that were placed in tombs to provide for the deceased in the next life. They were all richly decorated, some with geometric curls and spirals, others with animal designs and human heads. These were ceremonial, divine objects and they were done with extreme care. This particular container was intended to provide food for the deceased. Notice the profiles of animals on the upper section and the strange face on the center section. The two round circles form the eyes and the central crest of the nose. Eyebrows or horns are indicated above. This strange face, known as the T'ao-tieh mask, the "Glutton," will appear on many Shang bronzes. It represents a type of monster spirit, and it has a long history. It appears much later and in diverse places, for instance above the entrance gates of temples in Bali where, as the "face of glory" it represents time which devours all; as the fierce Greek gorgon's face; as the powerful serpent spirit Sisiutl of the Northwest Pacific Coast Indians; and on small bronze and silver objects carried across the steppes of Central Asia by nomads to early Medieval Europe where it appears as a decorative motif. ", "Dedication" : "SHANG | Fang Ye. Ritual food container. House shaped. | | Chinese | Shang", "Copyright_Type" : "permission", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Metalwork", "Creation_Place2" : "Chinese", "Department" : "Washington D.C. 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", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "SHANG DYNASTY Anonymous (1527 BCE - 1027 BCE)", "Sort_Artist" : "SHANG DYNASTY Anonymous", "Disp_Dimen" : "", "Disp_Height" : "", "Disp_Width" : "", "Dimen_Extent" : "", "Medium" : "Bronze", "Support" : "", "Disp_Medium" : "Bronze", "Info_Page_Comm" : "", "Dedication" : "SHANG Anonymous | Food Container (Fang Yi). | 1200 BCE-1100 BCE | Chinese | Shang | ┬ęKathleen Cohen | wash1162", "Copyright_Type" : "Permission", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Metalwork", "Creation_Place2" : "Chinese", "Department" : "Washington DC.", "Obj_Name" : "Vessel", "Period" : "Ancient", "Style" : "Shang", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/wash1162.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/wash1162.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/wash1162.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/wash1162.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "79577", "Image_Type" : "", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 53882, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/53882", "Disp_Access_No" : "chi00026", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "1199 BCE-1100 BCE", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1199 BCE", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1100 BCE", "Disp_Title" : "Ku.", "Alt_Title" : "Ritual wine beaker.", "Obj_Title" : "Ku. ", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "SHANG DYNASTY Anonymous (1527 BCE - 1027 BCE)", "Sort_Artist" : "SHANG DYNASTY Anonymous", "Disp_Dimen" : "", "Disp_Height" : "", "Disp_Width" : "", "Dimen_Extent" : "", "Medium" : "Bronze", "Support" : "", "Disp_Medium" : "Bronze", "Info_Page_Comm" : "This chinese vessel was found near the Roman port of Ostia and testifies to trade between the two empires. It is possibly in the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam instead of the Museo Nazionale. d'Arte Orientale in Rome. ", "Dedication" : "SHANG (LATE) | Ku. | 1199-1100 BCE | Chinese | Shang (Late)", "Copyright_Type" : "Permission", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Applied Arts", "Creation_Place2" : "Chinese", "Department" : "Rome. ", "Obj_Name" : "Vessel", "Period" : "Ancient", "Style" : "Shang (Late)", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/chi00026.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/chi00026.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/chi00026.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/chi00026.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "57432", "Image_Type" : "", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 80185, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/80185", "Disp_Access_No" : "China04.chi03009", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "1199 BCE-1100 BCE", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1199 BCE", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1100 BCE", "Disp_Title" : "Bell (Zhong).", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "Bell (Zhong).", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "SHANG DYNASTY Anonymous (1527 BCE - 1027 BCE)", "Sort_Artist" : "SHANG DYNASTY Anonymous", "Disp_Dimen" : "", "Disp_Height" : "", "Disp_Width" : "", "Dimen_Extent" : "", "Medium" : "Bronze", "Support" : "", "Disp_Medium" : "Bronze", "Info_Page_Comm" : "The power of the emperors had begun under the SHANG, the first of the great dynasties to rule China . While dates for the beginning of the dynasty are not fully established, the culture was flourishing by 1500 BCE. It was overthrown about 1050 BCE. Theirs was a highly organized society with walled cities, temples and ceremonial quarters dedicated to the worship of the gods and the ancestors. The excavations unearthed great numbers of the magnificent bronzes that are a mark of Shang art. These masterful bronzes, like the one you see here, were placed in the great tombs that they constructed to honor the dead. Many of the bronzes were food and wine containers that were used in ceremonies that provided communication between living and the dead. This object is a bell that was most likely used in the ceremonies. Like the food and wine containers, it was richly decorated with enigmatic figures, many of which probably represented supernatural composite animals. A particularly popular motif, known as the TAOTIE, is represented here. It represents a horned animal mask and possibly symbolizes the transformation of life. It is important to remember the basic Chinese concept illustrated in the Book of Changes of cyclical nature of reality and the transformation of one thing into another. ", "Dedication" : "SHANG | Bell (Zhong). | Shang | Chinese", "Copyright_Type" : "Permission", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Metalwork", "Creation_Place2" : "Chinese", "Department" : "Washington D.C. 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