{ "objects" : [ { "embark_ID" : 81396, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/81396", "Disp_Access_No" : "Athens32.gre04c85", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "c. 360 BCE-350 BCE", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "360 BCE", "_Disp_End_Date" : "350 BCE", "Disp_Title" : " L. Sacrifice of Iphigenia. R. Orestes and the Furies. ", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : " L. Sacrifice of Iphigenia. R. Orestes and the Furies. ", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "ILLARPERSIS PAINTER (active 360 BCE - 350 BCE)", "Sort_Artist" : "ILLARPERSIS PAINTER", "Disp_Dimen" : "", "Disp_Height" : "", "Disp_Width" : "", "Dimen_Extent" : "", "Medium" : "", "Support" : "", "Disp_Medium" : "", "Info_Page_Comm" : "Aeschylus was the first of the great classical dramatists, and he is credited with creating dramatic tension. In the Greek satyr plays an actor could talk to the chorus and he could change masks, thus changing character, but when Aeschylus added a second actor he vastly increased the dramatic possibilities. As Aristotle said in his Poetics, Aeschylus "reduced the chorus' role and made the plot the leading actor." These two scenes are from his great trilogy, the Oresteia, in which Aeschylus deals with the ancient motive of revenge as it played out in a single family, the house of Atreus. Each act of violence brings on a retaliatory murder, thus creating a chain of blood guilt. The scenes shown represent the beginning of the chain and its final resolution. In order to get a good wind for his departure for Troy, the hero Agamemnon sacrifices his daughter Iphigenia. On his victorious return, his wife Clytemnestra and her lover Aegisthus murder Agamemnon. Their son Orestes avenges his father's murder by killing Clytemnesta and Aegisthus. Orestes is pursued by the ancient Furies, for matricide is an infamous crime. The furies with their serpents refer to the ancient goddesses, whose power is not totally abrogated by the patriarchal Greek heroes. Orestes finally finds absolution at the court of the Areopagus. The conflict between the patriarchal need to avenge one's father and the matriarchal prohibition against matricide is dramatized and finally resolved through court and the laws as established by Athena. Through the three plays of the Oresteia the playwright struggled with the issues of "just punishment and moral responsibility, of human innocence and guilt, of individual freedom versus evil heredity and divine compulsion," issues which still concern and baffle us. ", "Dedication" : "ILLARPERSIS PAINTER & Greek Red-Figure | L. Sacrifice of Iphigenia. R. Orestes and the Furies. | c. 360-350 BCE | Greek | Attic Red-figure", "Copyright_Type" : "permission", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Ceramics", "Creation_Place2" : "Greek", "Department" : "London. ", "Obj_Name" : "", "Period" : "Ancient", "Style" : "Attic red-figure", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/gre04c85jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/gre04c85jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/gre04c85jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/gre04c85jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "70638", "Image_Type" : "", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] }, ] }