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Ritual container.", "Alt_Title" : "Ritual container.", "Obj_Title" : "Yi. Ritual container.", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "SHANG DYNASTY Anonymous (1527 BCE - 1027 BCE)", "Sort_Artist" : "SHANG DYNASTY Anonymous", "Disp_Dimen" : "", "Disp_Height" : "", "Disp_Width" : "", "Dimen_Extent" : "", "Medium" : "Bronze", "Support" : "", "Disp_Medium" : "Bronze", "Info_Page_Comm" : "", "Dedication" : "SHANG | Yi. Ritual container. | c. 1300-1250 BCE | Chinese | Shang", "Copyright_Type" : "Permission", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Metalwork", "Creation_Place2" : "Chinese", "Department" : "Washington D.C. ", "Obj_Name" : "Vessel", "Period" : "Ancient", "Style" : "Shang", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/chc01044.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/chc01044.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/chc01044.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/chc01044.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "37479", "Image_Type" : "", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 83290, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/83290", "Disp_Access_No" : "Transform31.Ch01007", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "1200 BCE-1100 BCE", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1200 BCE", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1100 BCE", "Disp_Title" : "Fang Ye. Ritual food container. House shaped.", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "Fang Ye. Ritual food container. House shaped.", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "SHANG DYNASTY Anonymous (1527 BCE - 1027 BCE)", "Sort_Artist" : "SHANG DYNASTY Anonymous", "Disp_Dimen" : "", "Disp_Height" : "", "Disp_Width" : "", "Dimen_Extent" : "", "Medium" : "", "Support" : "", "Disp_Medium" : "", "Info_Page_Comm" : "The Chinese were the first to develop bronze into a true artistic medium, as we see in this magnificent ritual vessel that was found in a tomb. Several centuries earlier the peoples of the Yellow River Valley had been brought together under the rule of one tribe, the Shang; and it is with them that many date the coming of civilization to China. In addition to creating the first unified state, the Shang developed writing. The first characters were found on bones that are thought to have been used for divination, which is foretelling the future. The characters also appear on the bronzes themselves. The Shang used bronze to create a whole variety of bronze vessels: containers for food, water and wine as well as ritual objects that were placed in tombs to provide for the deceased in the next life. They were all richly decorated, some with geometric curls and spirals, others with animal designs and human heads. These were ceremonial, divine objects and they were done with extreme care. This particular container was intended to provide food for the deceased. Notice the profiles of animals on the upper section and the strange face on the center section. The two round circles form the eyes and the central crest of the nose. Eyebrows or horns are indicated above. This strange face, known as the T'ao-tieh mask, the "Glutton," will appear on many Shang bronzes. It represents a type of monster spirit, and it has a long history. It appears much later and in diverse places, for instance above the entrance gates of temples in Bali where, as the "face of glory" it represents time which devours all; as the fierce Greek gorgon's face; as the powerful serpent spirit Sisiutl of the Northwest Pacific Coast Indians; and on small bronze and silver objects carried across the steppes of Central Asia by nomads to early Medieval Europe where it appears as a decorative motif. ", "Dedication" : "SHANG | Fang Ye. Ritual food container. House shaped. | | Chinese | Shang", "Copyright_Type" : "permission", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Metalwork", "Creation_Place2" : "Chinese", "Department" : "Washington D.C. 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", "Obj_Name" : "Bowl", "Period" : "Ancient", "Style" : "Steppes", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/slk02076.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/slk02076.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/slk02076.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/slk02076.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "26888", "Image_Type" : "", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 25630, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/25630", "Disp_Access_No" : "chc01041", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "1399 BCE-800 BCE", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1399 BCE", "_Disp_End_Date" : "800 BCE", "Disp_Title" : "Kuei.", "Alt_Title" : "Ritual vessel for food.", "Obj_Title" : "Kuei. ", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "SHANG DYNASTY Anonymous (1527 BCE - 1027 BCE)", "Sort_Artist" : "SHANG DYNASTY Anonymous", "Disp_Dimen" : "", "Disp_Height" : "", "Disp_Width" : "", "Dimen_Extent" : "", "Medium" : "Bronze", "Support" : "", "Disp_Medium" : "Bronze", "Info_Page_Comm" : "", "Dedication" : "SHANG | Kuei. | 1399-800 BCE | Chinese | Shang", "Copyright_Type" : "Permission", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Metalwork", "Creation_Place2" : "Chinese", "Department" : "China.", "Obj_Name" : "Vessel", "Period" : "Ancient", "Style" : "Shang", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/chc01041.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/chc01041.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/chc01041.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/chc01041.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "37476", "Image_Type" : "", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 93942, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/93942", "Disp_Access_No" : "balk7067", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "c. 1200 BCE-1000 BCE", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1200 BCE", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1000 BCE", "Disp_Title" : "Jue Ritual Vessel.", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "Jue Ritual Vessel. ", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "SHANG DYNASTY Anonymous (1527 BCE - 1027 BCE)", "Sort_Artist" : "SHANG DYNASTY Anonymous", "Disp_Dimen" : "", "Disp_Height" : "", "Disp_Width" : "", "Dimen_Extent" : "", "Medium" : "Gilded bronze", "Support" : "", "Disp_Medium" : "Gilded bronze", "Info_Page_Comm" : "", "Dedication" : "SHANG Anonymous | Jue Ritual Vessel. | c. 1200 BCE-1000 BCE | Chinese | Shang | balk7067", "Copyright_Type" : "Permission", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Metalwork", "Creation_Place2" : "Chinese", "Department" : "Zagreb.", "Obj_Name" : "", "Period" : "Ancient", "Style" : "Shang", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/balk7067.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/balk7067.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/balk7067.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/balk7067.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "83205", "Image_Type" : "", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 90648, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/90648", "Disp_Access_No" : "wash1153", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "1300 BCE-1100 BCE", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1300 BCE", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1100 BCE", "Disp_Title" : "Ritual Wine Container (Jia).", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "Ritual Wine Container (Jia). ", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "SHANG DYNASTY Anonymous (1527 BCE - 1027 BCE)", "Sort_Artist" : "SHANG DYNASTY Anonymous", "Disp_Dimen" : "", "Disp_Height" : "", "Disp_Width" : "", "Dimen_Extent" : "", "Medium" : "Bronze", "Support" : "", "Disp_Medium" : "Bronze", "Info_Page_Comm" : "Based on Neolith pottery models from East Coast of China. ", "Dedication" : "SHANG Anonymous | Ritual Wine Container (Jia). | 1300 BCE-1100 BCE | Chinese | Shang | ©Kathleen Cohen | wash1153", "Copyright_Type" : "Permission", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Metalwork", "Creation_Place2" : "Chinese", "Department" : "Washington DC.", "Obj_Name" : "Vessel", "Period" : "Ancient", "Style" : "Shang", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/wash1153.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/wash1153.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/wash1153.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/wash1153.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "79569", "Image_Type" : "", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 101567, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/101567", "Disp_Access_No" : "chin0575", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "c. 1300 BCE-1100 BCE", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1300 BCE", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1100 BCE", "Disp_Title" : "Jia with Phoenix Piller.", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "Jia with Phoenix Piller. 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", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "SHANG DYNASTY Anonymous (1527 BCE - 1027 BCE)", "Sort_Artist" : "SHANG DYNASTY Anonymous", "Disp_Dimen" : "", "Disp_Height" : "", "Disp_Width" : "", "Dimen_Extent" : "", "Medium" : "Bronze", "Support" : "", "Disp_Medium" : "Bronze", "Info_Page_Comm" : "", "Dedication" : "SHANG Anonymous | Ritual Drinking Vessel (Jue). | 1300 BCE-1200 BCE | Chinese | Shang | ©Kathleen Cohen | wash1147", "Copyright_Type" : "Permission", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Metalwork", "Creation_Place2" : "Chinese", "Department" : "Washington DC.", "Obj_Name" : "Vessel", "Period" : "Ancient", "Style" : "Shang", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/wash1147.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/wash1147.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/wash1147.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/wash1147.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "79565", "Image_Type" : "", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 53882, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/53882", "Disp_Access_No" : "chi00026", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "1199 BCE-1100 BCE", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1199 BCE", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1100 BCE", "Disp_Title" : "Ku.", "Alt_Title" : "Ritual wine beaker.", "Obj_Title" : "Ku. ", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "SHANG DYNASTY Anonymous (1527 BCE - 1027 BCE)", "Sort_Artist" : "SHANG DYNASTY Anonymous", "Disp_Dimen" : "", "Disp_Height" : "", "Disp_Width" : "", "Dimen_Extent" : "", "Medium" : "Bronze", "Support" : "", "Disp_Medium" : "Bronze", "Info_Page_Comm" : "This chinese vessel was found near the Roman port of Ostia and testifies to trade between the two empires. It is possibly in the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam instead of the Museo Nazionale. d'Arte Orientale in Rome. ", "Dedication" : "SHANG (LATE) | Ku. | 1199-1100 BCE | Chinese | Shang (Late)", "Copyright_Type" : "Permission", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Applied Arts", "Creation_Place2" : "Chinese", "Department" : "Rome. 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", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "SHANG DYNASTY Anonymous (1527 BCE - 1027 BCE)", "Sort_Artist" : "SHANG DYNASTY Anonymous", "Disp_Dimen" : "", "Disp_Height" : "", "Disp_Width" : "", "Dimen_Extent" : "", "Medium" : "Bronze", "Support" : "", "Disp_Medium" : "Bronze", "Info_Page_Comm" : "", "Dedication" : "SHANG Anonymous | Wine Container (Pou). | 1200 BCE-1000 BCE | Chinese | Shang | ©Kathleen Cohen | wash1157", "Copyright_Type" : "Permission", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Metalwork", "Creation_Place2" : "Chinese", "Department" : "Washington DC.", "Obj_Name" : "Vessel", "Period" : "Ancient", "Style" : "Shang", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/wash1157.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/wash1157.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/wash1157.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/wash1157.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "79572", "Image_Type" : "", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 25631, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/25631", "Disp_Access_No" : "chc01042", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "1299 BCE-1100 BCE", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1299 BCE", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1100 BCE", "Disp_Title" : "Ku.", "Alt_Title" : "Ritual wine beaker.", "Obj_Title" : "Ku. ", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "SHANG DYNASTY Anonymous (1527 BCE - 1027 BCE)", "Sort_Artist" : "SHANG DYNASTY Anonymous", "Disp_Dimen" : "", "Disp_Height" : "", "Disp_Width" : "", "Dimen_Extent" : "", "Medium" : "Bronze", "Support" : "", "Disp_Medium" : "Bronze", "Info_Page_Comm" : "", "Dedication" : "SHANG (LATE) | Ku. | 1299-1100 BCE | Chinese | Shang (Late)", "Copyright_Type" : "Permission", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Applied Arts", "Creation_Place2" : "Chinese", "Department" : "Amsterdam. ", "Obj_Name" : "Vessel", "Period" : "Ancient", "Style" : "Shang (Late)", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/chc01042.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/chc01042.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/chc01042.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/chc01042.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "37477", "Image_Type" : "", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 11603, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/11603", "Disp_Access_No" : "slk02086", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "1527 BCE-1027 BCE", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1527 BCE", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1027 BCE", "Disp_Title" : "Yuan (wine cup) with face of glory.", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "Yuan (wine cup) with face of glory. ", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "SHANG DYNASTY Anonymous (1527 BCE - 1027 BCE)", "Sort_Artist" : "SHANG DYNASTY Anonymous", "Disp_Dimen" : "", "Disp_Height" : "", "Disp_Width" : "", "Dimen_Extent" : "", "Medium" : "Metal", "Support" : "", "Disp_Medium" : "Metal", "Info_Page_Comm" : "A Yuan is a wine vase. One very similar to this was found in Rome and had apparently come across the Silk Road. ", "Dedication" : "SHANG | Yuan (wine cup) with face of glory. | 1527 BCE-1027 BCE | Chinese | Shang", "Copyright_Type" : "permission", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Metalwork", "Creation_Place2" : "Chinese", "Department" : "Paris. ", "Obj_Name" : "Vase", "Period" : "Ancient", "Style" : "Shang", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/slk02086.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/slk02086.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/slk02086.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/slk02086.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "26898", "Image_Type" : "", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 81486, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/81486", "Disp_Access_No" : "Persia37.Slk02086", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "1527 BCE-1027 BCE", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1527 BCE", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1027 BCE", "Disp_Title" : "Yuan (wine cup) with face of glory.", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "Yuan (wine cup) with face of glory. ", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "SHANG DYNASTY Anonymous (1527 BCE - 1027 BCE)", "Sort_Artist" : "SHANG DYNASTY Anonymous", "Disp_Dimen" : "", "Disp_Height" : "", "Disp_Width" : "", "Dimen_Extent" : "", "Medium" : "Metal", "Support" : "", "Disp_Medium" : "Metal", "Info_Page_Comm" : "A Chinese wine vessel almost identical to the one shown on the left was discovered in 1941 in a field near Ostia, the ancient port city for Rome. That vessel is currently in the National Museum of Oriental Art in Rome. We can only speculate about the many hands that the vessel went through to find its way from China across the vast Steppes of Central Asia through the Middle East and finally to Rome. Both that vessel and the one pictured here are decorated with the Tao Tieh or Dragon mask, a motif that made its way across the Steppes as well, transforming itself as it went. We shall encounter it and related motifs later when we study the art of the nomads. On the right was the type of mirror that the Han Emperor Wudi sent out with the trading expeditions to the West. Mirrors like this were used for divination. They were made of highly polished bronze, and thus, were both valuable and easily portable. Similar mirrors have been found in the tombs of nomad chiefs in Siberia and can currently be seen in various Russian museums. The pattern on the mirror might almost be an illustration of a 3rd century Chinese text that describes the four sons of heaven, the emperors of the four quarters of the world. To the north was the ruler of the horses; to the south the son of heaven of the elephants, that is the sovereign of India; to the east was the son of heaven of men, that is the Chinese themselves; while to the west was the son of heaven of richness, or the sovereign of the Roman empire. ", "Dedication" : "SHANG | Yuan (wine cup) with face of glory. | 1527 BCE-1027 BCE | Chinese | Shang", "Copyright_Type" : "permission", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Metalwork", "Creation_Place2" : "Chinese", "Department" : "Paris. ", "Obj_Name" : "Vase", "Period" : "Ancient", "Style" : "Shang", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/slk02c86.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/slk02c86.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/slk02c86.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/slk02c86.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "70726", "Image_Type" : "", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 80185, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/80185", "Disp_Access_No" : "China04.chi03009", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "1199 BCE-1100 BCE", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1199 BCE", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1100 BCE", "Disp_Title" : "Bell (Zhong).", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "Bell (Zhong).", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "SHANG DYNASTY Anonymous (1527 BCE - 1027 BCE)", "Sort_Artist" : "SHANG DYNASTY Anonymous", "Disp_Dimen" : "", "Disp_Height" : "", "Disp_Width" : "", "Dimen_Extent" : "", "Medium" : "Bronze", "Support" : "", "Disp_Medium" : "Bronze", "Info_Page_Comm" : "The power of the emperors had begun under the SHANG, the first of the great dynasties to rule China . While dates for the beginning of the dynasty are not fully established, the culture was flourishing by 1500 BCE. It was overthrown about 1050 BCE. Theirs was a highly organized society with walled cities, temples and ceremonial quarters dedicated to the worship of the gods and the ancestors. The excavations unearthed great numbers of the magnificent bronzes that are a mark of Shang art. These masterful bronzes, like the one you see here, were placed in the great tombs that they constructed to honor the dead. Many of the bronzes were food and wine containers that were used in ceremonies that provided communication between living and the dead. This object is a bell that was most likely used in the ceremonies. Like the food and wine containers, it was richly decorated with enigmatic figures, many of which probably represented supernatural composite animals. A particularly popular motif, known as the TAOTIE, is represented here. 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", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "SHANG DYNASTY Anonymous (1527 BCE - 1027 BCE)", "Sort_Artist" : "SHANG DYNASTY Anonymous", "Disp_Dimen" : "", "Disp_Height" : "", "Disp_Width" : "", "Dimen_Extent" : "", "Medium" : "Serpentine", "Support" : "", "Disp_Medium" : "Serpentine", "Info_Page_Comm" : "The Shang rulers lived in luxury, but it was a luxury that was purchased at the expense of their people. Their economy was based on slavery and human sacrifice played an important role in their rituals. Apparently the victims were prisoners who were captured in war, but sometimes raiding expeditions were sent out with the sole purpose of procuring sacrificial victims. They were sacrificed to a deity who was primarily concerned with war, rainfall and the crops. This small stone statue of a prisoner kneeling in preparation for the sacrifice shows a simplified and powerful approach to form. The simplicity of the surfaces is quite different from the richly decorated surfaces of the bronzes. Sacrifices were made to Shang rulers after their deaths, indicating that the Chinese practice of ancestor worship was in place by the Shang period. Even though their elaborate tombs were richly furnished, including the bodies of their followers and courtiers who would serve them in the afterlife, they still depended upon their living descendants for nourishment in the form of food offerings. The worst fate that could happen to a disembodied sprit was to be deprived of the nourishment supplied by sacrificial offerings. 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", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "SHANG DYNASTY Anonymous (1527 BCE - 1027 BCE)", "Sort_Artist" : "SHANG DYNASTY Anonymous", "Disp_Dimen" : "", "Disp_Height" : "", "Disp_Width" : "", "Dimen_Extent" : "", "Medium" : "Bronze; gold foil", "Support" : "", "Disp_Medium" : "Bronze; gold foil", "Info_Page_Comm" : "From Sanxengdui sacrificial pit. Discovered in 1986. ", "Dedication" : "Chinese Bronze Age | Bronze Head with Gold Foil. | 1300 BCE-1200 BCE | Chinese | Shang ?", "Copyright_Type" : "Permission", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Sculpture", "Creation_Place2" : "Chinese", "Department" : "New York City. ", "Obj_Name" : "Head", "Period" : "Ancient", "Style" : "Shang", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/nymt0735.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/nymt0735.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/nymt0735.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/nymt0735.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "43811", "Image_Type" : "", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 92637, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/92637", "Disp_Access_No" : "toro6938", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "c. 1300 BCE-1046 BCE", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1300 BCE", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1046 BCE", "Disp_Title" : "Helmet.", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "Helmet. ", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "SHANG DYNASTY Anonymous (1527 BCE - 1027 BCE)", "Sort_Artist" : "SHANG DYNASTY Anonymous", "Disp_Dimen" : "", "Disp_Height" : "", "Disp_Width" : "", "Dimen_Extent" : "", "Medium" : "Bronze", "Support" : "", "Disp_Medium" : "Bronze", "Info_Page_Comm" : "", "Dedication" : "SHANG Anonymous | Helmet. | c. 1300 BCE-1046 BCE | Chinese | Shang | ¬©Kathleen Cohen | toro6938", "Copyright_Type" : "Permission", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Metalwork", "Creation_Place2" : "Chinese", "Department" : "Toronto.", "Obj_Name" : "Helmet", "Period" : "Ancient", "Style" : "Shang", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/toro6938.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/toro6938.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/toro6938.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/toro6938.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "81870", "Image_Type" : "", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 101566, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/101566", "Disp_Access_No" : "chin0574", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "c. 1300 BCE-1100 BCE", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1300 BCE", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1100 BCE", "Disp_Title" : "Human and Animal Masks.", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "Human and Animal Masks. ", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "LATE SHANG Anonymous (c. 1200 BCE - 1027 BCE)", "Sort_Artist" : "LATE SHANG Anonymous", "Disp_Dimen" : "", "Disp_Height" : "", "Disp_Width" : "", "Dimen_Extent" : "", "Medium" : "Bronze", "Support" : "", "Disp_Medium" : "Bronze", "Info_Page_Comm" : "", "Dedication" : "LATE SHANG Anonymous|Human and Animal Masks. |Shang (Late)||Chinese|Changdu County. China. |©Kathleen Cohen", "Copyright_Type" : "Permission", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Metalwork", "Creation_Place2" : "Chinese", "Department" : "Xi'an.", "Obj_Name" : "", "Period" : "Ancient", "Style" : "Shang (Late)", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/chin0574.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/chin0574.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/chin0574.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/chin0574.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "90557", "Image_Type" : "", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 78934, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/78934", "Disp_Access_No" : "glob0005", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "c. 1500 BCE-1000 BCE", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1500 BCE", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1000 BCE", "Disp_Title" : "Shamanic Mask with Fangs. ", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "Shamanic Mask with Fangs. ", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "SHANG DYNASTY Anonymous (1527 BCE - 1027 BCE)", "Sort_Artist" : "SHANG DYNASTY Anonymous", "Disp_Dimen" : "", "Disp_Height" : "", "Disp_Width" : "", "Dimen_Extent" : "", "Medium" : "", "Support" : "", "Disp_Medium" : "", "Info_Page_Comm" : "College courses on Chinese Art usually begin with the Shang and Chou Dynasties of the Bronze Age which started about 3500 years ago. But the roots of those bronze forms and symbols are in the jade sculpture of the kind on display here. Most of them are from two neolithic cultures. The figurative pieces are from the Hongshan society in the north near the boarder of what is now Mongolia. Their chronology is still being established but they seem to have flourished from about 3500 BCE to about 2000 BCE. There are no documents to explain what these shapes mean. They lived long before writing but the shapes themselves say a great deal. Most if not all these pieces have shamanic associations. In the tribal world of Stone Age people it is common to depict combinatory beings who dwell in many dimensions not just one. For example we have here a 'cat-man' who is part man and part cat. The geometric pieces are from the Liangzhu society west of what is now Shanghai and seem to have flourished between about 5000 BCE and 2500 BCE. The two most important of these sacred geometric shapes were designed to be buried with the bodies of the departed. This burial ritual continued through the Bronze Age. The flat circular discs called 'bi' (formerly 'pi') were placed under and on top of the bodies. Originally they were undecorated but through time they became richly decorated with various symbols including the mysterious 'taotie' monster mask. The 'cong' (formerly 't’sung') is a rectangular shape in the center of which is a smooth circular tube. 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", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "EASTERN ZHOU Anonymous (act. c. 771 BCE-256 BCE)", "Sort_Artist" : "EASTERN ZHOU Anonymous", "Disp_Dimen" : "", "Disp_Height" : "", "Disp_Width" : "", "Dimen_Extent" : "", "Medium" : "Bronze", "Support" : "", "Disp_Medium" : "Bronze", "Info_Page_Comm" : "", "Dedication" : "EASTERN ZHOU Anonymous | Mirror & stand. | c. 771 BCE-220 CE | Chinese | Zhou (Eastern) | ¬©Kathleen Cohen | toro6956", "Copyright_Type" : "Permission", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Metalwork", "Creation_Place2" : "Chinese", "Department" : "Toronto.", "Obj_Name" : "Mirror", "Period" : "Ancient", "Style" : "Zhou (Eastern)", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/toro6956.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/toro6956.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/toro6956.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/toro6956.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "81885", "Image_Type" : "", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 78936, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/78936", "Disp_Access_No" : "glob0007", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "c. 1000 BCE-500 BCE", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1000 BCE", "_Disp_End_Date" : "500 BCE", "Disp_Title" : "Shamanic Figure with Inscriptions. ", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "Shamanic Figure with Inscriptions. ", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "ZHOU Anonymous (1028 BCE - 481 BCE)", "Sort_Artist" : "ZHOU Anonymous", "Disp_Dimen" : "", "Disp_Height" : "", "Disp_Width" : "", "Dimen_Extent" : "", "Medium" : "", "Support" : "", "Disp_Medium" : "", "Info_Page_Comm" : "College courses on Chinese Art usually begin with the Shang and Chou Dynasties of the Bronze Age which started about 3500 years ago. But the roots of those bronze forms and symbols are in the jade sculpture of the kind on display here. Most of them are from two neolithic cultures. The figurative pieces are from the Hongshan society in the north near the boarder of what is now Mongolia. Their chronology is still being established but they seem to have flourished from about 3500 BCE to about 2000 BCE. There are no documents to explain what these shapes mean. They lived long before writing but the shapes themselves say a great deal. Most if not all these pieces have shamanic associations. In the tribal world of Stone Age people it is common to depict combinatory beings who dwell in many dimensions not just one. For example we have here a “cat-man” who part man and part cat. The geometric pieces are from the Liangzhu society west of what is now Shanghai. They seem to have flourished between about 5000 BCE and 2500 BCE. The two most important of these sacred geometric shapes were designed to be buried with the bodies of the departed. This burial ritual continued through the Bronze Age. The flat circular discs called “bi” (formerly “pi”) were placed under and on top of the bodies. At first they were undecorated. Then they became richly decorated with various symbols including the mysterious “taotie” monster mask. The “cong” (formerly “t’sung”) is a rectangular shape in the center of which is a smooth circular tube. Seen from above or below the form is that of the mandala the circle-in-a-square which became a core symbol in Taoism- Hinduism and Buddhism. The square represents the material world and the circle represents the spiritual world or “nothingness.” The cong is a vessel that holds nothing or perhaps more accurately it contains “nothingness.” They were placed around the body. At first these ritual objects also were undecorated but became richly decorated with symbolic shapes and faces. Modern scholars are unsure of the meaning of these objects. However the surviving esoteric Taoist tradition explains that the “nothingness” at the center of the bi and the cong is the path that spirit takes from the earthly world to the heavenly world. The cong were made in many sizes apparently depending on the wealth of the deceased. Those on display here represent the known range of sizes from the tiny to the monumental. They are all made of sacred jade. Research on the exact dates for all of the Early Chinese pieces in this exhibition are an ongoing curatorial process. ©Lanier Graham", "Dedication" : "ZHOU Anonymous | Shamanic Figure with Inscriptions. |c. 1000 BCE-500 BCE| Chiinese | Zhou | ©CSU East Bay Art Gallery", "Copyright_Type" : "Permission", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Sculpture", "Creation_Place2" : "Chinese", "Department" : "Brentwood. CA. ", "Obj_Name" : "Statuette", "Period" : "Ancient", "Style" : "Zhou", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/glob0007.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/glob0007.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/glob0007.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/glob0007.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "11860", "Image_Type" : "", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 25288, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/25288", "Disp_Access_No" : "chi03013", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "599 BCE-200 BCE", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "599 BCE", "_Disp_End_Date" : "200 BCE", "Disp_Title" : "Guardian and attendants.", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "Guardian and attendants.", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "EASTERN ZHOU Anonymous (act. c. 771 BCE-256 BCE)", "Sort_Artist" : "EASTERN ZHOU Anonymous", "Disp_Dimen" : "", "Disp_Height" : "", "Disp_Width" : "", "Dimen_Extent" : "", "Medium" : "Wood", "Support" : "", "Disp_Medium" : "Wood", "Info_Page_Comm" : "", "Dedication" : "ZHOU (EASTERN) | Guardian and attendants. | 599-200 BCE | Chinese | Zhou (Eastern)/Warring States", "Copyright_Type" : "Permission", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Sculpture", "Creation_Place2" : "Chinese", "Department" : "Chicago.", "Obj_Name" : "Statuette", "Period" : "Ancient", "Style" : "Zhou (Eastern)", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/chi03013.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/chi03013.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/chi03013.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/chi03013.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "37344", "Image_Type" : "", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 36707, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/36707", "Disp_Access_No" : "chi04025", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "c. 400 BCE-200 BCE", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "400 BCE", "_Disp_End_Date" : "200 BCE", "Disp_Title" : "Monster head with deer antlers and long tongue.", "Alt_Title" : "Spirit potector.", "Obj_Title" : "Monster head with deer antlers and long tongue. ", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "EASTERN ZHOU Anonymous (act. c. 771 BCE-256 BCE)", "Sort_Artist" : "EASTERN ZHOU Anonymous", "Disp_Dimen" : "", "Disp_Height" : "", "Disp_Width" : "", "Dimen_Extent" : "", "Medium" : "", "Support" : "", "Disp_Medium" : "", "Info_Page_Comm" : "", "Dedication" : "EASTERN ZHOU | Monster head with deer antlers and long tongue. | c. 400 BCE-200 BCE | Chinese | Zhou Eastern", "Copyright_Type" : "Permission", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Sculpture", "Creation_Place2" : "Chinese", "Department" : "London. ", "Obj_Name" : "Figure sculpture", "Period" : "Ancient", "Style" : "Zhou (Eastern)", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/chi04025.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/chi04025.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/chi04025.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/chi04025.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "45201", "Image_Type" : "", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 90744, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/90744", "Disp_Access_No" : "wash1183", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "400 BCE-300 BCE", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "400 BCE", "_Disp_End_Date" : "300 BCE", "Disp_Title" : "Tomb Guardian with antlers.", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "Tomb Guardian with antlers. ", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "EASTERN ZHOU Anonymous (act. c. 771 BCE-256 BCE)", "Sort_Artist" : "EASTERN ZHOU Anonymous", "Disp_Dimen" : "", "Disp_Height" : "", "Disp_Width" : "", "Dimen_Extent" : "", "Medium" : "Wood; pigment; deer antlers.", "Support" : "", "Disp_Medium" : "Wood; pigment; deer antlers.", "Info_Page_Comm" : "", "Dedication" : "EASTERN ZHOU Anonymous | Tomb Guardian with antlers. | 400 BCE-300 BCE | Chinese | Zhou (Eastern) | ©Kathleen Cohen | wash1183", "Copyright_Type" : "Permission", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Sculpture", "Creation_Place2" : "Chinese", "Department" : "Washington DC.", "Obj_Name" : "Cult object", "Period" : "Ancient", "Style" : "Zhou (Eastern)", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/wash1183.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/wash1183.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/wash1183.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/wash1183.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "79595", "Image_Type" : "", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 90745, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/90745", "Disp_Access_No" : "wash1184", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "400 BCE-300 BCE", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "400 BCE", "_Disp_End_Date" : "300 BCE", "Disp_Title" : "Tomb Guardian with antlers. Detail.", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "Tomb Guardian with antlers. Detail. ", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "EASTERN ZHOU Anonymous (act. c. 771 BCE-256 BCE)", "Sort_Artist" : "EASTERN ZHOU Anonymous", "Disp_Dimen" : "", "Disp_Height" : "", "Disp_Width" : "", "Dimen_Extent" : "", "Medium" : "Wood; pigment; deer antlers.", "Support" : "", "Disp_Medium" : "Wood; pigment; deer antlers.", "Info_Page_Comm" : "", "Dedication" : "EASTERN ZHOU Anonymous | Tomb Guardian with antlers. Detail. | 400 BCE-300 BCE | Chinese | Zhou (Eastern) | ©Kathleen Cohen | wash1184", "Copyright_Type" : "Permission", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Sculpture", "Creation_Place2" : "Chinese", "Department" : "Washington DC.", "Obj_Name" : "Cult object", "Period" : "Ancient", "Style" : "Zhou (Eastern)", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/wash1184.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/wash1184.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/wash1184.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/wash1184.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "79596", "Image_Type" : "", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 83292, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/83292", "Disp_Access_No" : "Transform33.Chi01008", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "1000 BCE-800 BCE", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1000 BCE", "_Disp_End_Date" : "800 BCE", "Disp_Title" : "T'ao-tieh horse mask.", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "Horse mask.", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "ZHOU WESTERN Anonymous", "Sort_Artist" : "ZHOU WESTERN Anonymous", "Disp_Dimen" : "", "Disp_Height" : "", "Disp_Width" : "", "Dimen_Extent" : "", "Medium" : "Bronze", "Support" : "", "Disp_Medium" : "Bronze", "Info_Page_Comm" : "Here we see the zoomorphic T'ao-tieh mask all by itself. This example was attached to a horse. Shang warriors had been introduced to the horse which had most likely been domesticated by the Central Asian nomads. It became a powerful war machine, particularly when combined with the war chariot. How terrifying a huge horse would be, particularly when a frightening mask like this was attached to its harness. The magical T'ao-tieh mask focuses the destructive energies of the spirit world, and it can be used both as an object of power and a protective talisman.", "Dedication" : "WESTERN ZHOU | Horse mask. | 1000 BCE-800 BCE | Chinese | Zhou (Western )", "Copyright_Type" : "permission", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Metalwork", "Creation_Place2" : "Chinese", "Department" : "Washington D.C. ", "Obj_Name" : "", "Period" : "Ancient", "Style" : "Zhou (Western)", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/chi01008.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/chi01008.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/chi01008.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/chi01008.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "71466", "Image_Type" : "", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 11599, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/11599", "Disp_Access_No" : "slk02082", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "900 BCE -600 BCE", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "900 BCE", "_Disp_End_Date" : "600 BCE", "Disp_Title" : "Bronze bird head.", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "Bronze bird head. ", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "ZHOU Anonymous (1028 BCE - 481 BCE)", "Sort_Artist" : "ZHOU Anonymous", "Disp_Dimen" : "", "Disp_Height" : "", "Disp_Width" : "", "Dimen_Extent" : "", "Medium" : "Metal", "Support" : "", "Disp_Medium" : "Metal", "Info_Page_Comm" : "", "Dedication" : "ZHOU | Bronze bird head. | 900 BCE -600 BCE | Chinese | Steppes", "Copyright_Type" : "permission", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Metalwork", "Creation_Place2" : "Chinese", "Department" : "Paris. ", "Obj_Name" : "", "Period" : "Ancient", "Style" : "Steppes", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/slk02082.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/slk02082.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/slk02082.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/slk02082.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "26894", "Image_Type" : "", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 79299, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/79299", "Disp_Access_No" : "bere5139", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "c. 799 BCE-500 BCE", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "799 BCE", "_Disp_End_Date" : "500 BCE", "Disp_Title" : "Plaque in the shape of a wolf.", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "Plaque in the shape of a wolf. ", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "EASTERN ZHOU Anonymous (act. c. 771 BCE-256 BCE)", "Sort_Artist" : "EASTERN ZHOU Anonymous", "Disp_Dimen" : "", "Disp_Height" : "", "Disp_Width" : "", "Dimen_Extent" : "", "Medium" : "Bronze; Malachite", "Support" : "", "Disp_Medium" : "Bronze; Malachite", "Info_Page_Comm" : "", "Dedication" : "EASTERN ZHOU Anonymous | Plaque in the shape of a wolf. | c. 799 BCE-500 BCE | Chinese | Zhou (Eastern) | ©Kathleen Cohen | bere5139", "Copyright_Type" : "Permission", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Metalwork", "Creation_Place2" : "Chinese", "Department" : "Berlin (Dahlem).", "Obj_Name" : "", "Period" : "Ancient", "Style" : "Zhou (Eastern)", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/bere5139.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/bere5139.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/bere5139.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/bere5139.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "12164", "Image_Type" : "", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] },{ "embark_ID" : 101596, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/101596", "Disp_Access_No" : "chin0605", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "475 BCE-207 BCE", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "475 BCE", "_Disp_End_Date" : "207 BCE", "Disp_Title" : "Bronze Lion Tally.", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "Bronze Lion Tally. ", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "ZHOU WESTERN Anonymous", "Sort_Artist" : "ZHOU WESTERN Anonymous", "Disp_Dimen" : "", "Disp_Height" : "", "Disp_Width" : "", "Dimen_Extent" : "", "Medium" : "Bronze; inlay", "Support" : "", "Disp_Medium" : "Bronze; inlay", "Info_Page_Comm" : "", "Dedication" : "WESTERN ZHOU Anonymous|Bronze Lion Tally. |Zhou (Western)||Chinese|Shaanxi. 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While DRAGONS in the west were considered malevolent creatures whose major function was to be slain by heroes, dragons in the east had a very different symbolism. In Chinese mythology dragons helped both gods and human beings in their ceaseless struggle with the malevolent powers of nature. The different meanings attributed to dragons in the East and in the West emphasize the need to consider symbols within their own cultural contexts. These much-loved creatures were connected with rivers, oceans, and clouds. So-called "dragon jades" like this one were used in praying for rain. The power of the dragon to stir the clouds and produce rain indicated that the symbol developed in an agricultural setting, where human survival depended upon the yield of the crops. JADE itself had magical powers which prevented corruption and helped to insure a long life. We will find the reverence for jade and the love of dragons continuing throughout the long history of China. The dragon has been a central image in Chinese art from the earliest prehistoric times until the modern day. Images of the dragon appeared five to six thousand years ago on pottery in several different parts of China, and were carved in jade and other stones, cast in gold, and embroidered on robes like the one depicted in the opening image of this lesson. This elegant jade dragon was buried in a tomb sometime during the 7th to the 5th century BCE. (BCE stands for "Before the Common Era," a designation that is replacing BC, which means "Before Christ".) The earliest Chinese myths show great reverence for a creator pair, Nu Wa and Fu Xi, both of whom are described as having a snake's body and a human head. Nu Wa was the creator and benefactor of humanity. "She created man with clay," and "patched the sky with five colored stone." Her brother Fu Xi "communicated with the gods, tied ropes into nets and taught human beings how to farm and fish." The legends of Nu Wa and Fu Xi are considered as symbolizing the shift from a matriarchal to a patriarchal society. Traditional Chinese society was definitely patriarchal and highly structured. China has the longest continuing history of any world culture. In the course of this lesson we will examine a few of the works of art produced during that long period and some of the ideas that helped shape them. There is no way that a single lesson can give anything but a superficial introduction to this rich and complex culture, but at least we will be able to consider it in the framework of other great cultures of the past. In the course of this lesson we will briefly consider the art and ideas produced during the following dynasties: SHANG: c. 1550-1050 BCE ZHOU (also spelled Chou): c. 1050-221 BCE QIN (Ch'in): 2221-206 BCE HAN: 206 BCE-221 TANG: 618-906 SONG (Sung): 960-1279 YUAN : 1260-1368 (Mongols) MING: 1368-1644 QIN (Ch'ing): 1644-1911 (Manchus) I", "Dedication" : "EASTERN ZHOU | Dragon. | | Chinese | Zhou (Eastern) ", "Copyright_Type" : "permission", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "Applied Arts", "Creation_Place2" : "Chinese", "Department" : "Washington D.C. 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